European Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 132, Issue 1, pp 1–8 | Cite as

What role for photoperiod in the bud burst phenology of European beech

Review

Abstract

A considerable number of studies have investigated the phenology of European beech using models, experimental controlled conditions, or descriptive surveys of patterns in situ. In spite of this interest, there is no consensus about the environmental factors controlling bud burst in beech, especially about the role of photoperiod and chilling temperature (cold temperature effective to release bud dormancy). However, recent experimental and modelling studies provide new insights into the means by which these environmental factors control beech phenology. This present contribution aims to reconcile contradictory hypotheses about the main environmental factors controlling bud burst date of European beech. First, we review the main published results on the environmental control of beech phenology both in controlled and in natural conditions. Second, supported by the findings of recent studies, we propose a new theory for the role of photoperiod during the chilling phase for explaining spatial and temporal variations in bud burst phenology of European beech. Examples using long-term data from the Swiss Alps and Germany are presented to support this theory. The possible impacts of future and ongoing climate warming on beech phenology are discussed. Finally, due to interactions between chilling, forcing temperature, and photoperiod, we assert that beech phenology follows a nonlinear trend across biogeographical gradients such as changes in elevation or latitude and that the bud burst date of beech is expected not to undergo significant changes in response to global warming, especially in warmer climates.

Keywords

Fagus sylvatica Spring phenology Bud burst Chilling Photoperiod Temperature Climate change 

References

  1. Basler D, Körner C (2012) Photoperiod sensitivity of bud burst in 14 temperate forest tree species. Agric For Meteorol 165:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertin RI (2008) Plant phenology and distribution in relation to recent climate change. J Torrey Bot Soc 135(1):126–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bolte A, Czajkowski T, Kompa T (2007) The north-eastern distribution range of European beech—a review. Forestry 80(4):413–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Caffarra A, Donnelly A (2011) The ecological significance of phenology in four different tree species: effects of light and temperature on bud burst. Int J Biometeorol 55(5):711–721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caffarra A, Donnelly A, Chuine I, Jones MB (2011) Modelling the timing of Betula pubescens budburst. I. Temperature and photoperiod: a conceptual model. Clim Res 46(2):147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cannell MGR, Smith RI (1983) Thermal time, chill days and prediction of budburst in Picea sitchensis. J Appl Ecol 20(3):951–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chuine I (2000) A unified model for budburst of trees. J Theor Biol 207(3):337–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chuine I (2010) Why does phenology drive species distribution? Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 365(1555):3149–3160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Churkina G, Schimel D, Braswell BH, Xiao XM (2005) Spatial analysis of growing season length control over net ecosystem exchange. Glob Change Biol 11(10):1777–1787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cooke JEK, Eriksson ME, Junttila O (2012) The dynamic nature of bud dormancy in trees: environmental control and molecular mechanisms. Plant, Cell Environ. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02552.x Google Scholar
  11. Cufar K, De Luis M, Saz MA, Crepinsek Z, Kajfez-Bogataj L (2012) Temporal shifts in leaf phenology of beech (Fagus sylvatica) depend on elevation. Trees 26(4):1091–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davi H, Gillmann T, Cailleret M, Bontemps A, Fady B, Lefèvre F (2011) Diversity of leaf unfolding dynamics among tree species: new insights from a study along an altitudinal gradient. Agric For Meteorol 151(12):1504–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dittmar C, Elling W (2006) Phenological phases of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and their dependence on region and altitude in Southern Germany. Eur J For Res 125(2):181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Falusi M, Calamassi R (1990) Bud dormancy in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Effect of chilling and photoperiod on dormancy release of beech seedlings. Tree Physiol 6(4):429–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Falusi M, Calamassi R (1996) Geographic variation and bud dormancy in beech seedlings (Fagus sylvatica L). Ann Sci For 53(5):967–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Falusi M, Calamassi R (2003) Dormancy of Fagus sylvatica L. buds III. Temperature and hormones in the evolution of dormancy in one-node cuttings. Plant Biosyst 137(2):185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gomory D, Paule L (2011) Trade-off between height growth and spring flushing in common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Ann For Sci 68(5):975–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gordo O, Sanz JJ (2009) Long-term temporal changes of plant phenology in the Western Mediterranean. Glob Change Biol 15(8):1930–1948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gu L, Hanson PJ, Mac Post W, Kaiser DP, Yang B, Nemani R, Pallardy SG, Meyers T (2008) The 2007 eastern US spring freezes: increased cold damage in a warming world? Bioscience 58(3):253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hänninen H, Kramer K (2007) A framework for modelling the annual cycle of trees in boreal and temperate regions. Silva Fennica 41(1):167–205Google Scholar
  21. Harrington CA, Gould PJ, St Clair JB (2010) Modeling the effects of winter environment on dormancy release of Douglas-fir. For Ecol Manage 259(4):798–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heide OM (1993) Dormancy release in beech buds (Fagus sylvatica) requires both chilling and long days. Physiol Plant 89(1):187–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hunter AF, Lechowicz MJ (1992) Predicting the time of budburst in temperate trees. J Appl Ecol 29(3):597–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jochner S, Sparks T, Estrella N, Menzel A (2012) The influence of altitude and urbanisation on trends and mean dates in phenology (1980–2009). Int J Biometeorol 56:387–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Körner C, Basler D (2010) Phenology under global warming. Science 327(5972):1461–1462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kramer K (1994) Selecting a model to predict the onset of growth of Fagus sylvatica. J Appl Ecol 31(1):172–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kramer K (1995) Phenotypic plasticity of the phenology of seven European tree species in relation to climatic warming. Plant, Cell Environ 18(2):93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kreyling J, Thiel D, Nagy L, Jentsch A, Huber G, Konnert M, Beierkuhnlein C (2012) Late frost sensitivity of juvenile Fagus sylvatica L. differs between southern Germany and Bulgaria and depends on preceding air temperature. Eur J For Res 131(3):717–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lang GA, Early JD, Martin GC, Darnell RL (1987) Endo-, para-, and ecodormancy: physiological terminology and classification for dormancy research. HortScience 22(3):371–377Google Scholar
  30. Lebourgeois F, Pierrat JC, Perez V, Piedallu C, Cecchini S, Ulrich E (2010) Simulating phenological shifts in French temperate forests under two climatic change scenarios and four driving global circulation models. Int J Biometeorol 54(5):563–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Menzel A, Estrella N, Fabian P (2001) Spatial and temporal variability of the phenological seasons in Germany from 1951 to1996. Glob Change Biol 7(6):657–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Migliavacca M, Cremonese E, Colombo R, Busetto L, Galvagno M, Ganis L, Meroni M, Pari E, Rossini M, Siniscalco C, di Cella UM (2008) European larch phenology in the Alps: can we grasp the role of ecological factors by combining field observations and inverse modelling? Int J Biometeorol 52(7):587–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murray MB, Cannell MGR, Smith RI (1989) Date of budburst of fifteen tree species in Britain following climatic warming. J Appl Ecol 26(2):693–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Myking T, Heide OM (1995) Dormancy release and chilling requirement of buds of latitudinal ecotypes of Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Tree Physiol 15(11):697–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Polgar CA, Primack RB (2011) Leaf-out phenology of temperate woody plants: from trees to ecosystems. New Phytol 191(4):926–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rötzer T, Grote R, Pretzsch H (2004) The timing of bud burst and its effect on tree growth. Int J Biometeorol 48(3):109–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schaber J, Badeck FW (2003) Physiology-based phenology models for forest tree species in Germany. Int J Biometeorol 47(4):193–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Studer S, Appenzeller C, Defila C (2005) Inter-annual variability and decadal trends in alpine spring phenology: a multivariate analysis approach. Clim Change 73(3):395–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Thompson R, Clark RM (2008) Is spring starting earlier? Holocene 18(1):95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Thornton PE, Running SW, White MA (1997) Generating surfaces of daily meteorological variables over large regions of complex terrain. J Hydrol 190(3–4):214–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vitasse Y, Delzon S, Dufrene E, Pontailler JY, Louvet JM, Kremer A, Michalet R (2009a) Leaf phenology sensitivity to temperature in European trees: do within-species populations exhibit similar responses? Agric For Meteorol 149(5):735–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vitasse Y, Porte AJ, Kremer A, Michalet R, Delzon S (2009b) Responses of canopy duration to temperature changes in four temperate tree species: relative contributions of spring and autumn leaf phenology. Oecologia 161(1):187–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vitasse Y, Francois C, Delpierre N, Dufrene E, Kremer A, Chuine I, Delzon S (2011) Assessing the effects of climate change on the phenology of European temperate trees. Agric For Meteorol 151(7):969–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wareing PF (1953) Growth studies in woody species. V. Photoperiodism in dormant buds of Fagus sylvatica. Physiol Plant 6(4):692–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of BotanyUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations