Review of World Economics

, Volume 149, Issue 1, pp 5–22 | Cite as

Reconsidering learning by exporting

  • Miguel Manjón
  • Juan A. Máñez
  • María E. Rochina-Barrachina
  • Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis
Original Paper


Self-selection and learning by exporting are the main explanations for the higher productivity of exporting firms. But, whereas evidence on self-selection is largely undisputed, results on learning by exporting are mixed and far from conclusive. However, recent research by De Loecker (J Int Econ 73(1):69–98, 2007) has shown that the conclusions from previous learning by exporting studies may have been driven by strong assumptions about the evolution of productivity and the role of export status. Relaxing these assumptions turns out to be critical to find evidence of learning by exporting in a representative sample of Spanish manufacturing firms. Our results indicate that the yearly average gains in productivity are around 3 % for at least 4 years.


Learning by exporting Productivity Endogenous Markov process 

JEL Classification

F14 D24 C14 C33 C36 



The authors acknowledge the comments and suggestions made by the editor and two anonymous referees and, also, the financial support from the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (projects ECO2011-25033, ECO2011-30323-C03-02 and SEJ2010-19088/ECON), the Generalitat Valenciana (project PROMETEO/068) and the Generalitat de Catalunya (“Xarxa de Referència d’R + D + I en Economia i Polítiques Públiques” and the 2009-SGR-322 Program). Usual caveats apply.


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Copyright information

© Kiel Institute 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel Manjón
    • 1
  • Juan A. Máñez
    • 2
  • María E. Rochina-Barrachina
    • 2
  • Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis
    • 2
  1. 1.QURE-CREIP Department of EconomicsUniversitat Rovira i VirgiliTarragonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Applied Economics II and ERICESUniversitat de ValènciaValenciaSpain

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