1 Introduction

Regression testing is an expensive activity that ensures that changes made to evolving software systems do not break previously tested functionality [32, 61]. Regression test selection (RTS) approaches improve regression testing efficiency by executing a subset of the original test suite instead of the full test suite [11, 32]. RTS is performed by analyzing the changes made to software at the code [32] or model level [11]. Leung and White [47] show that a selective-retest technique becomes beneficial when the cost of test selection is less than the cost of running the non-selected tests. This makes it evident that reducing the cost of the selection process is important.

Model-based RTS offers several advantages over code-based RTS [11, 76], such as higher scalability [76] and also reusability because it exploits widely used modeling notations (e.g., UML) that are independent of the programming language used to implement the system [11]. Briand et al. [11] state that early estimation of regression testing effort is possible after modifying the design of the system and before propagating the changes to the code [11].

The existing UML model-based approaches use behavioral diagrams [15, 40, 75] or a combination of structural and behavioral diagrams [3, 4, 11, 25, 79]. Behavioral diagrams (e.g., activity, state, and sequence diagrams) represent calls between system operations, control dependencies, and object interactions. This information is needed to perform impact analysis on the changed model elements and to build traceability links between model elements and test cases.

Table 1 summarizes the results of evaluation of open-source projects [54] and developer surveys [21, 22, 26, 30, 37, 55, 72] to assess the use of UML diagrams in real-world software development. The percentages were calculated as the ratio of the number of respondents (or projects) that use a specific diagram type to the total number of the respondents (or projects). The values in a column do not add up to 100% because a respondent (or a project) may use multiple diagram types. Behavioral diagrams are clearly used less often than class diagrams, which limits the applicability of existing model-based RTS approaches. The difference in the usage frequency between the class diagram and the three diagram types used in model-based RTS approaches (activity, sequence, and state diagrams) is more than 20% in 5 studies. In the other 3 studies, the difference ranges between 4 and 52% depending on the diagram type.

Table 1 Percentage of UML diagram type usage

Even when both types of diagrams are used, the behavioral diagrams may be inconsistent with the structural diagrams or incomplete. Lange et al. [42]’s analysis of 14 industrial UML models of different sizes from various organizations found that between 40 and 78% of the operations represented in the class diagrams were not called in the sequence diagrams. Between 35 and 61% of the classes represented in the class diagrams did not occur as objects in the sequence diagrams.

For the above reasons, it is desirable to develop an RTS approach that only uses class diagrams. In [2], we proposed a model-based RTS approach called FLiRTS. It uses fuzzy logic to fill the abstraction gap of high-level (and therefore, incomplete) sequence and activity diagrams during test selection. In this paper, we propose FLiRTS 2, which extends FLiRTS for wider applicability by dropping the need for behavioral diagrams and focusing solely on UML class diagrams.

FLiRTS 2 requires as inputs (1) a class diagram modeling the software system and its test classes, and (2) the names of classes that changed between the two versions. Langer et al. [43] showed that class diagrams used in practice contain classes and interfaces, operation signatures and return types, generalization and realization relationships, and associations.

FLiRTS 2 is meant to be used in the contexts of model-based evolution and runtime adaptation of software systems, right after a class diagram is evolved but before the changes are propagated to the code. Several approaches exploit class diagrams to perform automatic refactorings during the maintenance phase. Moghadam et al. [52] automatically refactor the source code after design-level changes. The changes in the class diagram are used to identify the structural differences in the application design that are mapped to code-level refactorings and applied to the source code. REMODEL [38] uses genetic programming to automatically generate refactoring patterns and to apply them to the class diagram of the application under maintenance. The framework [13, 14] adopts a similar approach for the adaptation of structures. Dzidek et al. [23] showed that using and updating UML designs during the maintenance and evolution of a software system increased the functional correctness and design quality of the evolved system. The systematic literature review of da Silva et al. [64] showed that the UML profile-based mechanism is often used to customize a class diagram to properly support the design of context-awareness and self-adaptiveness properties of self-adaptive systems [1, 7, 10, 36, 39, 56, 62, 65, 66]. Vathsavayi et al. [34] use genetic algorithms to dynamically insert and remove design solutions from the application class diagram in response to the changing environment, and propagate the design-level changes to the code level using the Javaleon platform [29].

We compared the safety and precision violation, test selection reduction, and fault-detection ability of FLiRTS 2 with those of a dynamic RTS approach (Ekstazi [27]) and a static RTS approach (STARTS [45]). We used UML class diagrams extracted from 3331 revisions of 13 open-source software systems.

This paper is organized as follows. Sect.  2 provides background on fuzzy logic and presents the FLiRTS 2 approach and its tuning process. Sect.  3 describes the evaluation. Related work is summarized in Sect.  4. Conclusions and plans for future work are outlined in Sect.  5.

2 FLiRTS 2 approach

This section provides background on fuzzy logic (Sect. 2.1), an overview of FLiRTS 2 (Sect. 2.2), a description of its main steps (Sect. 2.3), and the process used to tune the fuzzy logic system and FLiRTS 2 parameters (Sect. 2.4).

2.1 Fuzzy logic

Fuzzy logic provides reasoning mechanisms to deal with uncertainty. It is a many-valued logic in which the truth values are not limited to true and false but may range between completely true and completely false [78]. A fuzzy logic system is a control system that is based on fuzzy logic and is realized by three steps: fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification [8]. The inputs to a fuzzy logic system are called input crisp variables, which take discrete values called input crisp values. The fuzzification step maps the input crisp values to input fuzzy values by using input fuzzy sets. A fuzzy set is one that allows its members to have different values of membership in the interval [0,1] based on a defined membership function. The inference step evaluates predefined inference rules using the input fuzzy values. The rules are formulated in the form “if antecedent then consequent”, where the antecedent can be any number of logical statements. An output variable and its fuzzy sets are also defined, and they are represented in the consequents of the inference rules. After evaluating the inference rules, their consequents are combined to form an aggregated fuzzy set from the output fuzzy sets. The defuzzification step produces an output crisp value from the aggregated fuzzy set. The output crisp value is mapped through the membership functions of the output fuzzy sets to a value between 0 and 1. If the value exceeds a predefined threshold, then the output set that produced the value becomes the final decision of the fuzzy logic system.

2.2 FLiRTS 2 overview

FLiRTS 2 classifies test cases as retestable or reusable based on the changes made to the UML class diagram representing the system under test. Retestable test cases exercise the modified parts of the system and must be re-executed. Reusable test cases only exercise the unmodified parts of the system and can be discarded [76]. Consistent with the current trend in code-based RTS research [27, 45, 81], FLiRTS 2 considers a test class to be a test case. It supports both unit and system test cases.

FLiRTS 2 depends on the knowledge of which classes under test are directly invoked by each test class. These invocations are modeled in the class diagram as call usage dependency relationships [9]. The class diagram must contain the test classes, their call usage dependencies, and the classes under test. No other usage dependency relationships in the class diagram, such as the create and send dependencies, or usage dependencies with customized stereotypes are required. However, if provided, they are treated as call usage dependencies.

FLiRTS 2 can be used with class diagrams that are customized using the UML-profile mechanism for a particular domain. A profile is defined using stereotypes, their tagged values, and constraints, which are applied to specific model elements, such as classes and operations. FLiRTS 2 supports stereotypes, tagged values, and constraints, but they are optional.

FLiRTS 2 does not need any behavioral diagram nor static/dynamic call dependency information except for the one from the test classes. From the UML class diagram, FLiRTS 2 constructs a graph, called class relationships graph (CRG), connecting the nodes representing the classes through edges representing the various relationships between them (e.g., associations and generalizations). From this CRG, it identifies all the paths from the test classes to the adapted classes. These paths are used as a substitute for the traceability information used in the canonical RTS approaches to classify test classes. The class diagram cannot provide complete information about the real usage of the diagram elements and whether or not the identified paths are actually exercised during the testing. The class diagram provides a static view of the application and the paths are identified with varying degrees of confidence that the relationships are actually exercised during the testing. This leads to an abstraction gap between the static model and the actual execution. FLiRTS 2 addresses this gap by adopting a probabilistic approach based on fuzzy logic.

The input crisp variables are based on the types of the relationships between the classes. The variables model (1) the probability that the execution of a test class traverses some adapted classes, and (2) the minimum distance from a test class to an adapted class. The input crisp values are calculated for each test class and used by the fuzzy logic system to compute the probabilities of a test class belonging to the reusable and retestable output fuzzy sets. If the probability of a test class for being retestable is above a given threshold, then the test class is classified as retestable. Otherwise, the test class is classified as reusable.

The results of a fuzzy logic system depend on several factors that need to be carefully configured to get acceptable results. However, there are no general rules or guidelines for configuring these factors that are appropriate for every domain [17, 19]. We fine-tuned the fuzzy logic system through a controlled experiment that selected the best configuration by comparing the test classification results obtained by systematically varying the factors through several possible values.

2.3 FLiRTS 2 process

The process consists of five steps that are all automated:

  1. 1.

    Building the CRG from the class diagram (Sect. 2.3.1).

  2. 2.

    Marking adapted classes in the CRG (Sect. 2.3.2).

  3. 3.

    Calculating the paths to the adapted classes (Sect. 2.3.3).

  4. 4.

    Calculating the input crisp values (Sect. 2.3.4).

  5. 5.

    Classifying the test cases (Sect. 2.3.5).

We demonstrate these steps on a small example taken from Kapitsaki and Venieris [39] for a context-aware lecture reservation service provided in a university campus. The service is available to every faculty and visiting professor who wants to book a lecture room. The context-aware service shows room availability only for those campus buildings close to the user’s current location. The list of available rooms is based on weather conditions because the campus provides a number of open air facilities for lectures.

In the original design, the weather—implemented by the class Weather—could only assume the states sunny, rain, or snow without any relationship to the temperature. In the adapted design [39] shown in Fig. 1, the temperature concept is added for use with the good weather condition. The added elements were the classes Temperature and DigitalThermometer, an aggregation relationship from Weather to Temperature, a usage dependency relationship from Temperature to DigitalThermometer, and the necessary stereotypes and tag values.

The class diagram did not include test classes. We added two test classes LectureReservationAppTest and LocationProviderAppTest, and these are shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1
figure 1

Partial class diagram after adaptation [39]

2.3.1 Building the CRG from the class diagram

The CRG is a weighted directed graph extracted from the adapted class diagram. We need to capture the directions of the element types because a directed edge from node A to node B indicates a likelihood that the element represented by A calls operations in the element represented by B.

Each class/interface is represented as a node in the CRG. Weighted directed edges are added between the nodes in the CRG when the corresponding classes/interfaces in the class diagram are connected by one of the UML element types: association, generalization, realization, formal parameter and return types of operations, stereotype tagged values, and usage dependency relationships. Figure 2 shows how these element types are mapped into directed edges in the CRG. OCL expressions may be used in the class diagram. However, no extra information is obtained regarding the relationships because the navigation between classes in the OCL expressions uses the associations and operation parameters that we already use to add edges to the CRG.

Fig. 2
figure 2

Mapping rules from UML element types to CRG

Each element type implicitly has a different likelihood to be exercised by a test execution and therefore to drive the execution of some adapted class. Such a likelihood depends on several factors that are unpredictable. Each edge in the CRG has a weight that represents the likelihood. Each weight is 2 to a power from 0 to 6. For the associations shown in the first three rows of Fig. 2, we use the same weight but the association type determines the number and direction of the edges that are added to the CRG. We also do not assign different weights to associations, aggregation, and composition relationships. Similarly, all types of usage dependency relationships are assigned an equal weight. The actual weight assigned to each element type is determined by the tuning process described in Sect. 2.4.

Only one directed edge e can be added from a node A to a node B in the CRG. The weight of the edge is:

$$\begin{aligned} \omega _{e}=\sum \limits _{i=1}^{N} \omega _i \end{aligned}$$

where N is the number of the UML element types introducing a relationship from class A to class B, and \(\omega _i\) is the weight assigned to the UML element type. For example, suppose that there are 3 associations and 1 generalization from class A to class B and that the weights 8 and 16 are assigned to the associations and generalizations, respectively. Then, the weights of the edges from A to B and B to A are 40 (=8*3 + 16*1) and 16 (=16*1), respectively.

2.3.2 Marking adapted classes in the CRG

This step requires the names of the adapted classes for labeling the corresponding CRG nodes as adapted. For example, in Fig. 3, the nodes DigitalThermometer, Weather, and Temperature have a red border because they are changed and marked as adapted.

The names of the adapted classes can be obtained in multiple ways. For example, model comparison techniques [12, 51, 73] can identify the adapted model elements and the classes/interfaces containing these elements by comparing the original with the adapted class diagram. Or they can be recorded during the adaptation of the original diagram by the used tool; this is the approach followed by the framework [13, 14]. Briand et al. [11] suggest another approach where developers use stereotypes to indicate all the classes that they expect to be adapted.

2.3.3 Calculating paths to the adapted classes

The input crisp values in FLiRTS 2 are computed wrt. each test class t. We consider the acyclic subgraph \(G_t=\left\{ V_t, E_t\right\} \) of the CRG where \(V_t\) contains t and all the nodes of the CRG reachable from t and \(E_t\) contains all the edges composing the simple paths (i.e., paths that do not contain cycles) connecting the nodes of \(V_t\) in CRG. We also consider \(G'_t=\left\{ V'_t, E'_t\right\} \) defined as the restriction of \(G_t\) over the adapted nodes reachable from t. Therefore, \(E'_t\) contains all the edges of the simple paths from t that reach an adapted node and \(V'_t\) contains the nodes composing the edges in \(E'_t\). Note that both \(V'_t\subseteq V_t\) and \(E'_t\subseteq E_t\) by construction.

Fig. 3
figure 3

Extracted CRG. Red nodes are the adapted classes. Red and blue edges are used to exemplify the calculation of the input crisp values

2.3.4 Calculating input crisp values

Two input crisp variables p and d are used. The probability that the execution of a test class traverses some adapted classes is represented by p, which considers the weights assigned to the UML element types in the construction of the CRG. The shortest distance from a test class to an adapted class is represented by d, where the shortest distance is the minimum number of edges in the CRG that must be exercised by a test class to reach an adapted class.

Given a test class t, and the graphs \(G_t=\left\{ V_t, E_t\right\} \) and \(G'_t=\left\{ V'_t, E'_t\right\} \) defined in Sect. 2.3.3, the value of p wrt. t is zero when \(V_t\) does not contain adapted nodes. Otherwise,

$$\begin{aligned} {} \mathbf{p} =\frac{\sum \limits _{\varepsilon \in E'_t}\omega _\varepsilon }{\sum \limits _{\eta \in E_t}\omega _\eta } \end{aligned}$$

The higher the value of p for t, the higher the probability that the execution of t traverses some adapted classes. In the CRG of Fig. 3, only five edges (red colored) are traversed to reach an adapted node from the test class LectureReservationAppTest; on the other hand, all the nodes are reachable from such test case and all but three edges (blue colored) can be traversed—the only excluded ones are those part of a cycle. The value of p for LectureReservationAppTest is 0.47 (i.e., \((4 + 8 + 32 + 32 + 4) / (4 + 8 + 32 + 32 + 4 + 32 + 4 + 16 + 4 + 4 + 8 + 2 + 2 + 16)\)).

The value of d wrt. t is infinity when no adapted node belongs to \(V_t\). Otherwise, it is the number of edges in the shortest path connecting t to an adapted node in \(G'_t\). From Fig. 3, the values of d are 3 and infinity for LectureReservationAppTest and LocationProviderAppTest, respectively. A smaller value of d indicates that the test class must traverse fewer class relationships to reach some adapted class, and thus, the test class has a higher likelihood of being retestable.

2.3.5 Classifying the test cases

The classification process involves the fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification [8] phases of fuzzy-logic systems using the input crisp variables and values from Sect. 2.3.4.

Fig. 4
figure 4

Input fuzzy sets

Input fuzzy sets.   For variable p, the sets are Low, Medium, and High, as shown in Fig. 4a. For variable d, the sets are Close, Medium, and Far, as shown in Fig. 4b. The membership functions of the input fuzzy sets of p and d were chosen according to the tuning process described in Sect. 2.4. The values assigned to p and d fit in these sets with a specific membership value between zero and one.

Output fuzzy sets.   An output crisp variable, tc, is used for test classification. Its output fuzzy sets are Retestable and Reusable as shown in Fig. 5. These sets were defined to be of equal size and their membership functions are trapezoidal. The functions map the output crisp value to probabilities for the test class being retestable and reusable. The boundaries for the Reusable set are (0, 1), (25, 1) and (50, 0); those for the Retestable set are (25, 0), (60, 1), and (75, 1).

Fuzzification phase.   This phase calculates the membership values in the input fuzzy sets for input crisp values assigned to p and d. The membership values are called fuzzy inputs, and they range between 0 and 1. The input crisp value of p for LectureReservationAppTest is 0.47. Using the fuzzy sets of p in Fig. 4a, the membership of 0.47 is zero in the Low set, 0.47 in the Medium set, and 0.53 in the High set. The input crisp value of d for LectureReservationAppTest is 3. Using the fuzzy sets of d in Fig. 4b, the membership of 3 is 1 in the Close set, zero in the Medium set, and zero in the Far set. Step (1) of Fig. 5 shows the fuzzification step for the input crisp values 0.47 and 3.

Inference phase.   FLiRTS 2 uses nine inference rules to consider all the combinations for the fuzzy sets of p and d. The antecedents of the rules are the input fuzzy sets of p and d, and the consequents are the output fuzzy sets of tc. The output value produced by each rule is called the fuzzy output. Table 2 summarizes the inference rules. The rules are in conjunctive canonical form where the conditions for the input crisp variables are connected by the AND (\(\wedge \)) operator. Figure 5 shows the application of 2 of the 9 rules.

Fig. 5
figure 5

Fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification phases

The inference rules are evaluated using the Mamdani inference method [50], which is the most common inference method in practice and in the literature [60]. For each rule, the fuzzy output is calculated as the minimum of the fuzzy inputs of the input crisp values used in the rule. For example, in Fig. 5, the input crisp values used in rule 1 are 3 and 0.47, and their fuzzy inputs are 1 (\({\varvec{\mu }}_{\textit{Close}}{} \mathbf{(3)}=\mathbf{1}\)) and 0.47 (\({\varvec{\mu }}_{\textit{Medium}}{} \mathbf{(0.47)}=\mathbf{0.47}\)), respectively. Rule 1 is evaluated by applying the minimum operation between 1 and 0.47 and the result of rule 1 is 0.47 as shown in step 2 of Fig. 5. Table 3 shows the results of applying each of the 9 rules.

The process of obtaining the overall consequent from the individual consequents of multiple rules is known as aggregation of rules (Step (3) of Fig. 5). We aggregate the outputs of all the rules using the maximum operation. From Table 3, the maximum output of all the rules that produce Retestable and Reusable is 0.53 and 0, respectively. The maximum outputs propagate through the Retestable and Reusable sets by truncating their respective membership functions. The truncated function of the Retestable set is shown as the shaded area in Fig. 5. The two truncated functions produce the aggregated membership function for the variable tc, shown as the output of Step (3) in Fig. 5.

Defuzzification phase.   The final output crisp value is found using the center of gravity of the aggregated membership function for tc. This is the centroid method [16, 60] and is the most common defuzzification method [60]. It finds the output crisp point x where a vertical line from x would slice the aggregated function into two equal masses. In our example, the defuzzification process returns 53.12 as the output crisp value as shown in Step (4) of Fig. 5. Finally, the output fuzzy sets, Retestable and Reusable, are used to map the output crisp value 53.12 to probabilities for Retestable and Reusable. The membership value of 53.12 in the Retestable set is 1 (as it can be spotted in Step (4) of Fig. 5 by crossing the prolonging of the slope of the Retestable set and the line perpendicular to the x-axis in 53.12), which means that the probability of LectureReservationAppTest being retestable is 100%.

The final classification of the test class is based on the probability of being retestable and a user-defined threshold. If the probability is above the threshold, the test class is classified as retestable; otherwise, it is reusable. For example, if the threshold was 70%, then LectureReservationAppTest would be classified as retestable.

Table 2 Inference rules
Table 3 Applying inference rules

2.4 Tuning FLiRTS 2

As should be evident from Sect. 2.3, a reliable test case classification result relies on the use of a proper configuration of the fuzzy system. A configuration is a triplet of (1) a function that assigns a weight to each UML relationship type, (2) the input fuzzy sets for the variables p and d, and (3) the selection threshold to classify a test class as retestable.

The result provided by FLiRTS 2 can be considered reliable when the resulting test classification shows the lowest safety and precision violations and the highest test selection reduction [44, 63] wrt. those achievable with other model-based or code-based RTS approaches on the same applications. In this respect, our term of comparison is Ekstazi [27]. Ekstazi is a code-based RTS approach known to be safe in terms of selecting all the modification-traversing test classes, widely evaluated on a large number of revisions, and being adopted by several popular open source projects; as such it can be considered the state-of-the-art for RTS tools.

The tuning process consists of finding the configuration —the set of all possible configurations, or configuration space—that minimizes the safety and precision violations wrt. Ekstazi and maximizes the test selection reduction for a particular set of subjects S that we use as a sample set. Given \(\mathbf{s} \in \mathbf{S} \), let \(\mathbf{R} _\mathbf{s} \) be the set of all considered revisions for s. Given \(\mathbf{r} \in \mathbf{R} _\mathbf{s} \), let \(\mathbf{E} ^\mathbf{sr } \) and \(\mathbf{F} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\) be the set of test cases of the revision r selected by Ekstazi and FLiRTS 2 with a configuration \(\mathbf{c} \in \mathbf{C} \), respectively. Safety (\(\mathbf{SV} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\)) and precision (\(\mathbf{PV} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\)) violations and test selection reduction (\(\mathbf{TR} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\)) for FLiRTS 2 with the configuration \(\mathbf{c} \in \mathbf{C} \) wrt. Ekstazi on the subject \(\mathbf{s} \in \mathbf{S} \) and revision \(\mathbf{r} \in \mathbf{R} _\mathbf{s} \) are calculated as:

$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{SV} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr } =\frac{|\mathbf{E} ^\mathbf{sr } \smallsetminus \mathbf{F} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr } |}{|\mathbf{E} ^\mathbf{sr } \cup \mathbf{F} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr } |} \quad \mathbf{PV} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr } =\frac{|\mathbf{F} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr } \smallsetminus \mathbf{E} ^\mathbf{sr } |}{|\mathbf{E} ^\mathbf{sr } \cup \mathbf{F} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr } |} \quad \mathbf{TR} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr } =\frac{|\mathbf{T} ^\mathbf{sr } |-|\mathbf{F} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr } |}{|\mathbf{T} ^\mathbf{sr } |} \end{aligned}$$

where \(\mathbf{T} ^\mathbf{sr }\) is the test suite for the revision r of the subject s before RTS is performed. The values of \(\mathbf{SV} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\), \(\mathbf{PV} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\), and \(\mathbf{TR} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\) are multiplied by 100 to make them percentages. Lower percentages for \(\mathbf{SV} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\) and \(\mathbf{PV} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\), and higher percentages for \(\mathbf{TR} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\) are better. \(\mathbf{SV} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\), \(\mathbf{PV} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\) and \(\mathbf{TR} _{\mathbf{c}}^\mathbf{sr }\) can be used to define, for each configuration c, the set of their average values over the revisions in \(\mathbf{r} \in \mathbf{R} _{\mathbf{S}}\) for each \(\mathbf{s} \in \mathbf{S} \) as


They are also used to define for each subject \(\mathbf{s} \in \mathbf{S} \), their optimum value over all the configurations in C as

The best configuration is the one that shows the minimal distance from the optimum values for safety and precision violations and test selection reduction.

where we used the Manhattan distance [20].

Section 2.4.1 presents the subject applications used in the tuning process. Sect. 2.4.2 describes the process of calculating the configuration space. We discuss issues about the tuning process and threats to validity in Sect. 2.4.3.

2.4.1 Subject applications for tuning FLiRTS 2

Even though FLiRTS 2 is a model-based approach, we are forced to tune it using code-based subjects because of the lack of large open-source model-based subjects and other model-based RTS tools. We used the 8 subjects listed in Table 5. These are selected from the 21 open-source Java projects summarized in Table 4, which are known to be compatible with Ekstazi since they were used in its evaluation [27, 44].

We downloaded the revisions of every subject using the methodology in Legunsen et al. [44]. From the earliest revision to the latest SHA listed in Table 5, we chose all those revisions that (1) correctly compiled, and (2) for which the tests and Ekstazi compiled and ran successfully.

From source code to models.   The UML class diagrams for the selected subjects were automatically extracted from each revision by using the Java to UML transformation plugin for the Rational Software Architect (RSA) [46]. The extracted models contain classes, interfaces, operations with input parameters and return types, associations, generalizations, and realizations. They do not contain usage dependency relationships because these are not supported by the RSA transformation plugin. Thus, the diagrams do not contain the information regarding the direct invocations from the test classes to the classes under test. We obtained this information from the corresponding code-level revision using Apache Commons BCEL [28], which supports static analysis of binary Java class files, and stored it in a text file. The text files were provided along with the corresponding class diagrams as inputs to FLiRTS 2. FLiRTS 2 supports reading the information regarding the direct invocations from the class diagram as well as from a separate text file when the information is not represented in the class diagram.

Marking adapted classes.   As explained in Sect. 2.3, FLiRTS 2 needs the names of the adapted classes. However, EMF compare [12] and any other model comparison approaches do not work with the extracted models because each extracted model uses a different set of element ids and every comparison concludes that every model element has changed even if this is not the case. Thus, we were forced to use the git diff command on the source code. The names of the modified classes/interfaces produced by git diff were used as input to FLiRTS 2 to mark the adapted classes in the class diagram that was generated from the same source code.

Selecting revisions.   Only revisions that differed from that previously selected by more than 3% of its Java classes were selected. The aim is to increase the chances of having multiple code changes between the selected revisions and to reduce the cases where the changes do not involve code modifications (e.g., only changes to comments).

Table 4 Subjects for the tuning (plain) and the evaluation (shaded)

We selected eight subjects (those with an empty background in Table 4): four with the smallest and four with the largest average number of changed classes. This choice permits us to tune FLiRTS 2 to work with both highly variable subjects (e.g., systems that introduce new functionality) and mostly stable subjects (e.g., systems whose changes are due to bug fixing). Table 5 shows for each subject, the latest revision used (SHA), the number of used revisions (Revs), and among all the used revisions, the average number of classes (\(\mathbf{A} _\mathbf{cl }\)), and the average number of adapted classes (\(\mathbf{A} _\mathbf{ad }\)).

Table 5 Selected projects for the tuning process

2.4.2 Selecting the best configuration

The configuration space is the set of the combinations of values that can be assumed by the three elements in the triplet

$$\begin{aligned} <\textit{weight assignment}, \textit{input fuzzy sets}, \textit{selection threshold}>.\end{aligned}$$

We now describe how these combinations were calculated.

Weight Assignment.   This function assigns a weight among 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 to the considered UML element types: association, generalization, realization, formal parameters of operations, return types of operations, and usage dependency relationships. We did not consider tagged values because the class diagrams generated from the code-level revisions do not use UML profiles and do not contain tagged values. Because there are 6 weights for 6 element types, there are 720 (=6!) weight assignment functions.

Input fuzzy sets.   The input fuzzy sets for the two input crisp variables p and d were generated by applying shift and expand operations to the initial sets. We only generated fuzzy sets with triangular or trapezoidal shapes because these layouts are proven to produce good results for most of the domains [17, 19]. Fig. 6a, b shows the initial sets for p and d, and the points for the fuzzy sets from \(n_1\) through \(n_6\). We apply the shift and expand operations to these points.

Fig. 6
figure 6

Initial and generated input fuzzy sets

The input values range between 0 and 1 for p, and 0 and 25 for d. The range for d was determined by considering all the values it could get from the test classes in the sample space S and the largest value was 25, whereas p is a probability and its values naturally range between 0 and 1. We applied shift and expand by a given amount \(\varepsilon \), where \(\varepsilon \) was chosen to be one-fifth of the range of p (0–1) and d (0–25). Thus, the value of \(\varepsilon \) was 0.2 for p and 5 for d.

The generation process starts from the initial values and repeatedly applies the shift operation using the amount \(\varepsilon \) to the right on all sets. To shift by \(\varepsilon \) means to add \(\varepsilon \) units to each point from \(n_1\) to \(n_6\) in each set. We stop shifting when the Medium set reaches the right boundary. This happens when the points on the right, \(n_3\) and \(n_6\), are clipped at the right boundary. Figure 6c shows how the initial fuzzy sets of p were shifted. Each application of the shift operation generates a possible group of fuzzy sets. Each group is further refined by repeatedly applying an expand operation to the Medium set. Specifically, the point \(n_4\) of the Medium set is moved to the left by \(\varepsilon \), and the point \(n_6\) of the Medium set is moved to the right by \(\varepsilon \). The other sets are modified similarly. We repeatedly apply the expand operation until the left points \(n_1\) and \(n_4\) reach the left boundary and the right points \(n_3\) and \(n_6\) reach the right boundary. Figure 6b shows the result of an application of the expand operation to the Medium set of Fig. 6c. The expand operation (Fig. 6b) moved the four points \(n_1\), \(n_4\), \(n_3\), and \(n_6\).

We generated 21 fuzzy set groups each for p and d. The fuzzy logic system uses one fuzzy set group for p and one for d together in a function block, which is a primitive object that contains the input and output variables and their fuzzy sets, and the inference rules [16]. Therefore, the total number of generated combinations was 21*21=441.

Selection threshold.   We considered 5 possible values for the selection threshold: 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%.

Configuration space.   The total number of the configurations used to tune FLiRTS 2 was 720*441*5=1,587,600.

Best configuration.   We ran Ekstazi on the selected subjects and FLiRTS 2 on the corresponding model inputs with each configuration from the calculated configuration space. The total number of FLiRTS 2 runs was 2,344,885,200 (=1,587,600 configurations * 1,477 revisions of the sample subjects). For every configuration, subject, and revision of a subject, we calculated the safety and precision violations, and test selection reduction wrt. Ekstazi and calculated the best configuration according to the formulas and process described in Sect. 2.4.

The best configuration uses the weights 2 for associations, 1 for realizations, 32 for generalizations, 4 for return types, 16 for input parameters, and 8 for usage dependencies. The input fuzzy sets for this configuration are shown in Fig. 4, and the selection threshold is 50%. This configuration is the one that shows the minimal distance wrt. the Ekstazi results for safety and precision violation and test selection reduction.

2.4.3 Threads to validity for the tuning process

FLiRTS 2 must be tuned only once for a new context and objective for which it is used. For example, we gave a higher priority to safety than to test selection reduction. Practitioners who have different objectives, such as higher test selection reduction when regression testing time is limited as in continuous integration environments with frequent commits, will need to re-tune FLiRTS 2 to achieve higher test selection reduction. Re-tuning is also required if the approach is used for models where UML profiles and tagged values are used. In our tuning approach, we did not use models that have tagged values, and thus, we did not use weights for them.

Below we present threats to validity that can affect the outcome of the tuning process.

External validity.   We used a small number (8) of sample subjects to tune FLiRTS 2, and used one criterion to select the subjects based on the largest/smallest number of changed classes. These sample projects may not be representative, so we cannot generalize the tuning result. Moreover, selecting the subjects based on other criteria such as the number and type of test cases could impact the tuning outcome. However, the selected subjects vary in size, application domain, number of revisions, and number of test classes, which reduces this threat.

Internal validity.   We reverse engineered the class diagrams from code-level revisions. The generated associations were all directed, i.e., the class diagrams did not include the other types of associations shown in Fig. 2. Moreover, the generated diagrams did not include some design information such as tagged values of stereotypes and OCL expressions. Although providing this information is optional for FLiRTS 2, having it could impact the outcome.

We used the git diff command between the code-level revisions to identify the adapted classes. Applying model comparison between the class diagrams could identify fewer adapted classes because some code-level changes may not be detectable at the model level. We extracted the direct invocations from test classes to classes under test from the code-level revisions. These deviations from FLiRTS 2, which should only use model-level information, could introduce errors and change the results.

The best configuration we found is a local optimum with respect to the configuration settings used in the tuning process. Using different weights, membership functions for the fuzzy sets, selection thresholds, and distance measures could impact the outcome.

Other factors that can affect the outcome are errors in the FLiRTS 2 implementation. To reduce this threat, we built our implementation on mature tools (i.e., JGraphT [53] and jFuzzyLogic [16]) and tested it thoroughly.

Construct validity.   We chose Ekstazi as the ground truth against which to tune FLiRTS 2. However, Ekstazi may not represent the ground truth for all RTS, and tuning FLiRTS 2 with respect to other RTS approaches could impact the tuning outcome. However, Ekstazi is safe, and is similar to FLiRTS 2 in terms of supporting class-level RTS.

There are other techniques that can be used to tune fuzzy logic systems, such as genetic algorithms, which we did not consider in this work. We plan to investigate such techniques in the future.

3 Evaluation

The evaluation goals were to compare FLiRTS 2 with other RTS tools in terms of (1) safety violation, (2) precision violation, (3) test suite reduction, (4) selection performance and saved time for regression testing, and (5) fault-detection ability of the obtained reduced test suites. The terms safety violation, precision violation, and test suite reduction are defined in Sect. 2.4. The fault-detection ability was compared by using mutation analysis on the subjects using the full test suites and the reduced test suites obtained by the RTS tools.

To the best of our knowledge, there is no freely available repository that contains subjects with test cases and design models for several of their revisions. This forced us to extract the needed models from the source code of the considered subjects. It was not possible to compare FLiRTS 2 with other model-based RTS approaches because neither their tool implementations (e.g., [11, 25]), nor the models used in the reported studies are available or because they (e.g., MaRTS [4]) use behavioral diagrams (e.g., sequence and activity diagrams) that are notoriously difficult to automatically extract from the source code. Therefore, we use two code-based RTS tools, Ekstazi [27] and STARTS [45]. They are both state-of-the-art and have been widely evaluated on a large number of revisions of real world projects [44]. Ekstazi, STARTS, and FLiRTS 2 use class-level RTS, i.e., they all identify changes at the class level and select every test class that traverses or depends on any changed class. Ekstazi uses dynamic analysis and STARTS uses static analysis of compiled Java code.

3.1 Experimental setup

We evaluated FLiRTS 2 on 13 subjects—those listed in Table 4 with a gray background—out of the 21 used to evaluate Ekstazi [27, 44]. We explicitly excluded those subjects we used in the tuning process of FLiRTS 2 to avoid any possible bias in the experiment results. The revisions were selected using the same method described in Sect. 2.4.1 with the additional criterion that the subject should also run with STARTS on the chosen revisions. Moreover, we relaxed the constraint on the number of changes between a revision and its successor from greater than 3% of the classes to at least one class. The total number of selected revisions is 3331 for the 13 subjects. Table 6 reports the number of the selected revisions for each subject. We automatically generated the UML class diagrams from the 3331 revisions and identified the adapted classes using the method described in Sect. 2.4.1. We ran Ekstazi and STARTS on the 3331 code-level revisions, and FLiRTS 2 on the corresponding models using the best configuration obtained during the tuning process.

The zip archives that contain the current implementation of FLiRTS 2, UML class diagrams generated from the code revisions, scripts to download the code revisions and run the experiment, and the experimental results are available at:


3.2 Results

Table 6 reports the RTS results in terms of safety violation, precision violation, and test suite reduction. Table 7 reports and compares the time spent in the RTS process by the 3 tools. Finally, Table 8 reports on the fault-detection ability experiment.

Safety violation.   The median safety violation is zero (or close to zero) for all the subjects. Figure 7a shows that the average safety violation is below or close to 20% for all the subjects wrt. STARTS and for 12 out 13 subjects wrt. Ekstazi. Among all the 3331 revisions, the average safety violation of FLiRTS 2 was 18.88% wrt. Ekstazi and 16.53% wrt. STARTS. This indicates that FLiRTS 2 missed approximately the 18% of the test classes that were selected by the other tools on average. This is because FLiRTS 2 is designed to work with UML class diagrams and this diagram type cannot provide certain types of information used by the other tools such as (1) dynamic dependencies of test classes with the classes under test, (2) Java reflection, (3) exceptions, (4) dependencies from test classes to third party libraries and input configuration files, and (5) the code contained inside the method body (e.g., local variables referencing classes and method invocations on classes).

Precision violation.   The median precision violation is zero for 10 out 13 subjects wrt. Ekstazi and 11 out 13 subjects wrt. STARTS, and never goes above 31% in the few remaining cases both wrt. Ekstazi and STARTS. Figure 7b shows that the average precision violation of FLiRTS 2 was below or close to 30% for mostly all the subjects wrt. both Ekstazi and STARTS. Among all the 3331 revisions, the average precision violation of FLiRTS 2 was 13.27% wrt. Ekstazi and 9.01 % wrt. STARTS. This is because FLiRTS 2 is based on a probabilistic model, while Ekstazi is based on collecting the dynamic dependencies of the test classes, which can more precisely exclude test classes that do not traverse adapted classes. STARTS is a static approach and therefore less precise than Ekstazi. Thus, FLiRTS 2 achieved a lower average precision violation wrt. STARTS than wrt. Ekstazi.

Test suite reduction.   Figure 7c plots the average percentage of selected test cases (100 minus the average reduction percentage from Table 6) by the 3 tools. It is evident that (i) FLiRTS 2 achieved a reduction for all the subjects even though it is less precise and (ii) its reduction is comparable to the reduction achieved by the other tools. The average reduction percentage achieved by FLiRTS 2 over all the subjects was 82.06%. FLiRTS 2 achieved a higher or close (i.e., with a difference of less than 0.5%) average reduction percentage than STARTS on 10 out of 13 subjects. Even though Ekstazi is a dynamic approach, Ekstazi and FLiRTS 2 achieved a close (a difference of more or less 2%) average reduction percentage on 7 out of 13 subjects.

Table 6 RTS results
Table 7 RTS performance (all data are in s)

Time savings.   During the running of the experiment, we also collected the time needed to select the test cases and for their execution. Table 7 reports such measurements. The data show that FLiRTS 2 tends to be faster than both Ekstazi and STARTS during the test case selection phase; over the 3331 considered revisions, on average FLiRTS 2 takes 11.83 s whereas Ekstazi takes 13.96 s and STARTS takes in average 102.58 s. On the other hand, considering also the time needed to execute the selected test cases the benefit is not that remarkable; over the 3331 considered revisions, on average FLiRTS 2 takes 253.80s whereas Ekstazi takes 238.53 s and STARTS takes 351.47 s. This is due to the fact that FLiRTS 2 is less precise than the other tools but despite this it is still faster than Ekstazi on 11 out of 13 of the considered subjects (the 12th column in Table 7) and it overperforms STARTS on all the subjects (the 13th column in Table 7). The 16th column in Table 7 makes explicit that FLiRTS 2 always saves a significant amount of time wrt. the execution of the whole test suite. The only exception is subject \(\mathbf{p} _\mathbf{21 }\) where the limited test case reduction makes the time spent in selecting higher than the saved time; anyway FLiRTS 2 still behaves better than the other two tools because of its minimal selecting time.

Fault-detection ability.   In the absence of real faults, mutation operators are often used to seed faults in testing experiments [5]. We use a mutation-based approach with the PIT [18] tool to apply first-order method-level mutation operators to the revisions of 12 subjects out of the 13 considered in the previous experiment (\(\texttt {p}_{5}\) was removed because its JUnit tests are incompatible with PIT). We applied all the 13 PIT mutation operators [18] and configured PIT to mutate only the adapted classes of each revision. The adapted classes are detected by STARTS and used for the whole experiment. Moreover, the same mutations are used for all the three tools to avoid any bias introduced by different mutations.

For each revision, we ran PIT with the full test suites and those selected by FLiRTS 2, Ekstazi, and STARTS. Table 8 shows the experimental results. Note that PIT assigns 0 to the mutation score of a revision when the corresponding tool did not select any test case. This is because no test case can be used to kill the introduced mutants. We did not modify this behavior in the experiment.

The third column of Table 8 reports the average mutation score per subject achieved by running the full test suite, i.e., the average percentage of killed mutants wrt. the introduced mutants. The average mutation score for each subject is low because the available test suites for the considered subjects do not completely cover the subject code base. In particular the test suites lack the ability to cover the adapted portion of the code base where we introduced the mutations. It should be evident that no subset of the full test suite can kill more mutants than the whole test suite. Therefore, we consider the mutation score for the whole test suites as the term of comparison for the mutation scores achieved with the considered tools. The fourth, fifth, and sixth columns report the average deviation of the mutation score for FLiRTS 2 , Ekstazi and STARTS, respectively. The deviation from the average for the subject s is calculated as

$$\begin{aligned} \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \mathbf{dev} _\mathbf{t }^\mathbf{s }=(\mathbf{A}-MS ^\mathbf{s }-\mathbf{A}-MS _\mathbf{t }{} \mathbf{s} )^2 \end{aligned}$$

where \(\mathbf{A}-MS ^{\mathbf{s}}\) is the average mutation score achieved by exercising the full test suite on all the revisions of the subject s and \(\mathbf{A}-MS _\mathbf{t }^\mathbf{s }\) with t instantiated as FLiRTS 2 , Ekstazi or STARTS is the average mutation score achieved by exercising the test suite selected by the tool t on the revisions of the subject s. Table 8 shows that all the selections have a low average deviation for every subject. In most cases—11, 10, and 6 out of 12 subjects for Ekstazi, STARTS, and FLiRTS 2 , respectively—they deviate by approximately 1 percentage point and only in a few cases—1, 2, and 1 out of 12 for Ekstazi, STARTS, and FLiRTS 2 , respectively—they deviate by more than 10 percentage points. The standard deviation of the averages for each tool t

$$\begin{aligned} \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad {{\upsigma }_\mathbf{t }}=\sqrt{\frac{\sum _\mathbf{s \in \mathbf{S} }{} \mathbf{dev} _{\mathbf{t}}^{\mathbf{s}}}{|\mathbf{S} |}} \end{aligned}$$

shows that all the tools deviate by less than 2 percentage points. In particular, the standard deviation for FLiRTS 2 is 1.78%, for Ekstazi is 1.11%, and for STARTS is 1.43%. Ekstazi has a higher chance to detect a fault than STARTS and FLiRTS 2 because it is a dynamic approach; FLiRTS 2 instead loses a few tenths of a percentage point because it selects fewer test cases than the other tools (as seen in the previous experiment) and the missed test cases include modification-traversing test classes that killed mutants in the adapted classes. In all three cases, the difference is negligible and should not compromise the fault detection ability of the tools.

Table 8 Fault detection ability results

The last three columns of Table 8 show how many cases (in percentage) FLiRTS 2 performs equal to or better than Ekstazi and STARTS in detecting a fault. For each subject, it shows the percentage of revisions in which the test classes selected by FLiRTS 2 killed at least as many as mutants than the test classes selected by Ekstazi and STARTS, respectively. The percentages in the 7th column show where the test cases selected by FLiRTS 2 kill as many mutants as the whole test suite. On average, FLiRTS 2 always ranks above 94% in comparison with any test suite selection—94.88% wrt. the full test suite, 95.63% wrt. Ekstazi selection and 95.33% wrt. STARTS selection. For FLiRTS 2, the losses are mainly attributable to its safety violations wrt. Ekstazi and STARTS; it missed some modification-traversing test cases that could have detected the faults.

3.3 Threats to validity

The external and internal threats to validity to the tuning process also apply here. We mitigated them in the same way as before. Moreover, we used 3331 revisions from 13 open-source projects varying in size, application domain, and number of test classes.

Fig. 7
figure 7

Averages of safety and precision violations, and test suite selection of FLiRTS 2

Construct validity.   In general, we could have used other metrics (e.g., test coverage) to evaluate the effectiveness of FLiRTS 2. However, we used the most common metrics in the research literature: safety violation, precision violation, reduction in test suite size, and fault-detection ability.

As per the time saving experiment, a clear problem is that the repeated execution of the same piece of code can provide different execution times due to several factors external to our control, including but not limited to memory paging, device and internet latencies, and CPU loading. As far as possible, we mitigated this issue by considering the computer load and by considering the average execution times rather than absolute values.

As per the fault detection ability experiment, one possible issue can be related to the fact that the randomly generated faults could be applied to code portions that are not adapted. We mitigated this issue by limiting the application of the mutation operators to those classes that STARTS detects as changed. The threat to construct validity is that we use mutation scores as a measure of fault detection ability. In the experiment, mutations may have been applied to code that was not modified in the revision. However, all the tools are equally affected because they all depend on identifying changes at the class level and they select any test case that traverses through the classes.

4 Related work

RTS has been studied for over three decades [24, 24, 76]. Below we summarize the existing code-based, model-based, and fuzzy logic-based approaches.

Code-based RTS.   Kung et al. [41], Hsia et al. [35], and White and Abdullah [71] proposed firewall-based approaches. The firewall contains the changed classes and their dependent classes. Test cases that traverse classes in the firewall are selected. Skoglund and Runeson’s [67] change-based approach only selects those test cases that exercise the changed classes. ChEOPSJ [68, 69] is a static change-based approach that uses the FAMIX model to represent software entities including test cases and building dependencies between them. These approaches use fine-grained information such as constructor calls and method invocation statements to build dependencies between software entities. FLiRTS 2 does not have, nor require, this information.

Rothermel and Harrold [61] analyze the program’s control flow graph to identify changes at the statement level. Harrold et al. [33] extended the approach using the Java Inter-class Graph (JIG) to support Java. This is unlike FLiRTS 2, which identifies dependencies and changes at the class level.

Yu et al. [77] evaluated method-level and class-level static RTS in continuous integration environments. Class-level RTS was determined to be more practical and time-saving than method-level RTS. Gyori et al. [31] compared variants of dynamic and static class-level RTS with project-level RTS in the Maven Central open-source ecosystem. Class-level RTS was found to be an order of magnitude less costly than project-level RTS in terms of test selection reduction. Several other RTS approaches [27, 45, 81] were recently proposed to make RTS more cost-effective for modern software systems. FLiRTS 2 follows this recent trend [27, 31, 44, 45, 77] and focuses on class-level RTS.

Ekstazi [27] is a change-based approach that tracks dynamic dependencies of test cases at the class level, and is formally proven to be safe. STARTS [44, 45] is a static approach that builds a dependency graph of program types based on compile-time information, and selects test cases that can reach changed types in the transitive closure of the dependency graph. HyRTS [81] is a dynamic and hybrid approach that supports analyzing the adapted classes at multiple levels of granularity (method and file) to improve the precision and selection time. Running HyRTS using the class-level mode produces the same RTS results as Ekstazi [81]. Thus, HyRTS was not consider in our evaluation.

Other recent RTS approaches [6, 59] are tunable to allow for trade-offs between safety and test selection reduction for situations where the regression testing budget is limited. SPIRITuS [59] uses information retrieval to select test cases, and can be easily adapted to different programming languages. ReTEST [6] is a language independent RTS approach that uses information retrieval to select test cases based on test failure history, test case diversity, and code change history at the line level. ReTEST eliminates the need for dynamic and static analysis. Unlike FLiRTS 2, SPIRITuS and ReTEST use fine-grained information from method bodies, test coverage, and failure history information. However, they are similar in that they are programming language independent and tunable with respect to different objectives.

Model-based RTS.   Briand et al. [11] classify test cases based on changes performed to UML use case diagrams, class diagrams, and sequence diagrams. Farooq et al. [25] classify test cases based on changes made to UML class and state machine diagrams. Zech et al. [79, 80] presented a generic model-based RTS platform controlled by OCL queries that can identify the changed elements of the models, which are then used to select the test case models. Korel et al. [40], Ural et al. [70], and Lity et al. [48] proposed model-based RTS approaches based on state machine diagrams. Ye et al. [75] select test cases based on changes performed to UML activity diagrams. MaRTS [3] classifies test cases based on changes performed to UML class and executable activity diagrams. Unlike FLiRTS 2, the above model-based approaches use some type of behavioral model that must contain sufficient details to obtain the traceability links between the test cases and the model elements, which is not common in practice [11].

Fuzzy logic-based RTS.   Xu et al. [74] and Malz et al. [49] select test cases using code-based fuzzy logic approaches that require test coverage information.

Rapos et al. [57] proposed a model-based approach that uses fuzzy logic to prioritize test cases based on the symbolic execution tree for UML-RT state machine diagrams. Rhmann et al. [58] used fuzzy logic to prioritize test paths generated from a state machine diagram that represents the system under test. FLiRTS [2] refines the UML activity diagrams that represent behaviors of a software system at a high level of abstraction, and applies fuzzy logic to classify the test cases according to the probabilistic correctness values associated with the used refinements. Unlike FLiRTS 2, the model-based approaches use behavioral diagrams and obtain the test coverage at the model level.

5 Conclusions and future work

In this work, we investigated the use of fuzzy logic in regression test selection to bridge the abstraction gap between the source code and the UML class diagrams that model structural aspects of the system. Our approach, called FLiRTS 2, uses information about the classes that are adapted in a class diagram, and generates a class relationships graph where the nodes represent the classes and interfaces, and the weighted directed edges represent the likelihood that a class is calling an operation defined in another class. Paths from test cases to adapted classes are associated with varying degrees of certainty that they are actually exercised by some test case. FLiRTS 2 uses a probabilistic approach based on fuzzy logic to deal with the uncertainty and classify the test cases as retestable or reusable.

The key advantage of using FLiRTS 2 is that it relies only on class diagrams containing information that is commonly provided by software developers. It needs far less information than other model-based RTS approaches. Neither behavioral models, traceability links from the test cases to model elements, nor coverage data are needed. In spite of the limited information available to FLiRTS 2, it can still achieve test suite reduction without losing much fault detection effectiveness (a standard deviation from the whole test suite of 1.78 percentage points).

Using 13 subjects, we compared the safety violation, precision violation, test suite reduction, and fault detection ability of FLiRTS 2 with those of Ekstazi and STARTS. The average safety violations of FLiRTS 2 with respect to Ekstazi and STARTS were 18.88% and 16.53%, respectively. The average precision violations were 13.27% and 9.01%, respectively. The average test suite reduction using FLiRTS 2 was 82.06%.

We plan to explore search-based techniques to tune the fuzzy logic system. We also plan to explore the use of fuzzy logic (1) to select regression test cases based on changes in requirements models, and (2) to prioritize test cases based on objectives such as test case diversity. As machine learning techniques gain traction in software engineering research, it is worthwhile to investigate their use in RTS approaches.