Theoretical models for branch formation in plants
- 202 Downloads
Various branch architectures are observed in living organisms including plants. Branch formation has traditionally been an area of interest in the field of developmental biology, and theoretical approaches are now commonly used to understand the complex mechanisms involved. In this review article, we provide an overview of theoretical approaches including mathematical models and computer simulations for studying plant branch formation. These approaches cover a wide range of topics. In particular, we focus on the importance of positional information in branch formation, which has been especially revealed by theoretical research in plants including computations of developmental processes.
KeywordsBranch Divarication Mathematical model Plant morphogenesis Theoretical approach
We thank the members of our laboratory for their help, Shigeru Kondo for the inspiration for this work, Seisuke Kimura and Nobuhiko J. Suematsu for critical discussion and suggestions, and Momoko Ikeuchi for providing a sample and suggestions. This work was supported by Grants from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant Numbers 17K19380 and 18H05492, from The Sumitomo Foundation for a Grant for Basic Science Research Projects Grant Number 160146, and The Canon Foundation to T.H. We thank Robbie Lewis, MSc, from Edanz Group (http://www.edanzediting.com/ac) for editing a draft of this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Barnsley MF (1988) Fractals everywhere. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- Higaki T, Takigawa-Imamura H, Akita K, Kutsuna N, Kobayashi R, Hasezawa S, Miura T (2017) Exogenous cellulase switches cell interdigitation to cell elongation in an RIC1-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon pavement cells. Plant Cell Physiol 58:106–119Google Scholar
- Honda H, Hatta H (2004) Branching models consisting of two principles: phyllotaxis and effect of gravity. Forma 19:183–196Google Scholar
- Inoue A, Furuki T, Imaichi R (2008) Developmental morphology of irregularly-shaped gametophytes of the liverwort Mizutania riccardioides (Mizutaniaceae). Acta Phytotax Geobot 59:239–247Google Scholar
- Lacalli TC (1975a) Morphogenesis in Micrasterias I. Tip growth. J Embryol Exp Morphol 33:95–115Google Scholar
- Lacalli TC (1975b) Morphogenesis in Micrasterias II. Pattern of morphogenesis. J Embryol Exp Morphol 33:117–126Google Scholar
- Mech R, Prusinkiewicz P (1996) Visual models of plants interacting with their environment. In: SIGGRAPH ‘96 proceedings of the 23rd annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, pp 397–410Google Scholar
- Meinhardt H (1982) Models of biological pattern formation. Academic, London, pp 37–38Google Scholar
- Meinhardt H, Gierer A (1974) Applications of a theory of biological pattern formation based on lateral inhibition. J Cell Sci 15:321–346Google Scholar
- Miura T, Shiota K, Morriss-Kay G, Maini PK (2006) Mixed-mode pattern in Doublefoot mutant mouse limb—Turing reaction–diffusion model on a growing domain during limb development. J Thor Biol 240:107–128Google Scholar
- Momose S (1967) Prothallia of the Japanese ferns (Filicales). University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo [in Japanese] Google Scholar
- Niklas KJ (1988) The role of phyllotactic pattern as a “developmental constraint” on the interception of light by leaf surfaces. Evolution 42:1Google Scholar
- Parihar NS (1967) Bryophyta. Indian Universities Press, AllahabadGoogle Scholar
- Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL (1999) Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis. Development 126:4117–4128Google Scholar
- van Iterson G (1907) Mathematische und mikroskopisch-anatomische Studien über Blattstellungen. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar