A reflection on collaborative adaptation research in Africa and Asia
- 2.1k Downloads
The reality of global climate change demands novel approaches to science that are reflective of the scales at which changes are likely to occur, and of the new forms of knowledge required to positively influence policy to support vulnerable populations. We examine some of the opportunities and challenges presented by a collaborative, transdisciplinary research project on climate change adaptation in Africa and Asia that utilized a hotspot approach. A large-scale effort to develop appropriate baselines was a key challenge at the outset of the program, as was the need to develop innovative methodologies to enable researchers to work at appropriate spatial scales. Efforts to match research to the biophysical scales at which change occurs need to be aware of the mismatch that can develop between these regional scales and the governance scales at which decisions are made.
KeywordsClimate change Adaptation Collaborative research Hotspots
Although significant effort was made toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (UN 2015a, b), it is now increasingly recognized that the impacts of climate change on people experiencing poverty must be integrated within development policies going forward (Adams et al. 2013; Hallegatte et al. 2016). The Sustainable Development Goals convey the central challenge of adapting to climate change by integrating targets related to climate adaptation and resilience throughout the goals. The Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognize the central challenge of adapting to climate change and have therefore integrated targets related to climate adaptation and resilience throughout the goals. It is increasingly apparent, therefore, that supporting people experiencing poverty in their efforts to respond to climate change impacts will be a defining social challenge in the coming decades. New forms of climate and development science are required that reimagine not only how and why knowledge is produced, but also where and at what scales such knowledge must be produced (ISSC, IDS and UNESCO 2016). Ensuring knowledge influences decision making requires a broadening of focus to address for who knowledge is produced, how it is presented and in what ways it is used. Effective engagement necessitates an understanding of the enablers and barriers regarding how decision making can be influenced.
Significant international funding has been pledged to support adaptation to climate change, and decision makers require relevant information as they determine priorities for their adaptation plans. This paper is therefore timely as it presents the emerging results emanating from the Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA), a seven-year research program co-funded by Canada’s International Development Research Center and the UK Department for International Development. CARIAA focuses on regional climate hotspots that take into account the intersections among ecological, physical and socioeconomic systems (De Souza et al. 2015). In this Short Communication, we reflect on our experiences of knowledge production and the emerging results from the first three years of the program, paying attention to the challenges we have encountered working collaboratively at regional scales, and how these challenges have either been overcome or reshaped the program. In so doing, we share lessons learned about transdisciplinary regional studies and offer timely insights for adaptation planning in some of the regions that are most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The following section introduces the hotspot approach, which is followed by a discussion on the challenges and opportunities of large-scale collaborative projects. The paper then explores the regional scale focus of the research required new data sets, methodologies and research designs and highlights a large collection of open access material now available for regional scale research in Africa and Asia. We conclude with a reflection on how we see future research evolving, with explicit strategies emerging to influence policy and practice.
A ‘hotspot’ approach for regional climate change adaptation research
In the past, the notion of a ‘hotspot’ has largely been used in the biodiversity conservation arena to prioritise regions of the world where action was required to prevent critical biodiversity loss (e.g., Myers 1988; Hughes et al. 2002; Cowling et al. 2003; Bossuyt et al. 2004). Adopted by the United Nations Environment Program, the notion of hotspots proved an effective means for communicating and prioritising action for biodiversity conservation. In the climate change arena, a hotspot approach was used in the Fourth IPCC Assessment Report (IPCC 2007) and has garnered increased interest since then (e.g., Thornton et al. 2008; Hare et al. 2011). However, where the initial biodiversity hotspot approach was concerned primarily with human threats to biodiversity (together with endemism), the climate change and development community has turned this notion on its head, most recently defining climate change hotspots as regions where a ‘strong climate change signal is combined with a large concentration of vulnerable, poor or marginalised people’ (De Souza et al. 2015: 748). Social vulnerability, rather than human threat to ecosystems, therefore sits at the center of the climate change hotspot approach.
Collaboration as central to regional research
Working at a regional scale on climate change adaptation issues requires collaboration and active learning among networks of researchers, practitioners and policy makers as well as engagement with decision makers from the public and private sectors. In other words, it requires a transdisciplinary research process (Russell et al. 2008; Mobjörk 2010) that includes large numbers of self-organized groups with membership from diverse backgrounds and from an array of sectors of society, working on complex problems at the interface between society and the environment (Pohl et al. 2010; Jahn et al. 2012). The success or failure of transdisciplinary processes is often related to the extent to which coevolution of understanding occurs, and the extent to which individuals from science, policy and practice domains are interactively involved in framing the ‘problem,’ in knowledge production, and in knowledge application (Reyers et al. 2010; Roux et al. 2010).
CARIAA is organized around four transdisciplinary consortia, consisting of over 450 individuals working in a variety of sectors, including universities, research institutes, NGOs, think tanks and the private sector, and all with strategies for engagement with decision makers. Research modalities such as this one, which actively engage with complex problems through large-scale transdisciplinary approaches, necessarily require active learning and reflexivity to be a core part of program design and implementation. We have learned that collaborative research within and across regions requires sufficient funding, ongoing facilitation, thought leadership, in-person meetings and virtual tools, supported by mechanisms wherein individual researchers move from connecting to collaborating as relationships are built, and common interests are identified.
Understanding regional change requires new baselines
Climate change adaptation baseline assessments developed for hotspots
Delta systems: Ganga–Brahmaputra–Meghna, Mahanadi and Volta
Country coverage: Bangladesh, Ghana and India
Policy, planning and practice
Vincent and Cull (2016)
Tucker et al. (2015)
Glacier- and snowpack-dependant river basins
Country coverage: Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan
Policy, planning and practice
Changing glacier and water regime
Country coverage: Botswana, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Pakistan, Senegal, Tanzania and Tajikistan
Policy, planning and practice
Bizikova et al. (2015), Gaye et al. (2015), Jones et al. (2015), Lemma et al. (2015), Mabhuye et al. (2015), Mustaeva et al. (2015), Rokitzki and Morchain (2015), Salik et al. (2015), Waldinger and Fankhauser (2015), Wetta et al. (2015), Yanda et al. (2015), Crawford (2016), Crawford and Terton (2016a), Crawford and Terton (2016b), Daze (2016), Daze and Echeverria (2016), Dipama (2016), Echeverria and Terton (2016), Gilmont (2016), Jobbins et al. (2016), Patra (2016), Simonet and Jobbins (2016), Singh et al. (2016b), Zamudio (2016)
Castells-Quintana (2015), Deryng (2015), Few et al. (2015), Hartwig (2015), IIHS et al. (2015), Newborne and Tucker (2015), Padgham et al. (2015), Qaisrani (2015), Spear et al. (2015), Tucker et al. (2015), Wade et al. (2015), Basu and Bazaz (2016), Bedelian and Ogutu (2016), Castells-Quintana et al. (2016), Njoka et al. (2016), Saeed et al. (2016)
The CARIAA experience has underscored the challenge of regional scale research, where baselines at appropriate resolutions are rare. Studies intending to take a regional scale approach should budget and plan for the development of their own baselines. In terms of content lessons from these baselines, migration emerged as a central theme and has continued as a core issue in all hotpots during the course of CARIAA. In the delta hotspots, migration was a research question at the outset, while for other hotspots it has been integrated as mobility is connected with vulnerability, adaptive capacity and resilience. In addition to emergent findings, the CARIAA approach presents opportunities for rethinking regional studies. The IPCC reports have regional chapters and provide details on specific, often national or sub-national, examples. The research emerging from CARIAA offers two unique approaches to hotspot research: studies at the regional scale (e.g., West Africa) as well as across hotspots (e.g., semiarid lands in Africa and Asia). The program thus presents new approaches for approaching research questions and offers insights regarding how hotspots can be better understood.
Conducting research for impact requires novel program design and research approaches
Collaboration between transdisciplinary research networks across climate change hotspots has been limited (Bizikova et al. 2015). CARIAA was explicitly designed to provide its members with the basis for collaboration through shared strategies and common understandings of purpose, while simultaneously providing the flexibility to support emergent collaboration around themes of common interest. To achieve the latter, the program was designed to actively build relationships, trust and opportunities for learning across the hotspots (Ensor and Harvey 2015). One means of achieving this has been to invest in frequent face-to-face and virtual meetings at multiple scales that provide opportunities for networking and act as incubators for emerging ideas for collaboration. Such face-to-face opportunities have been shown to be critical for collaboration and synthesis elsewhere (Hampton and Parker 2011), and this has been CARIAA’s experience. For example, the above-mentioned contributions to the IPCC Special Report on 1.5 Degrees were introduced at an annual face-to-face meeting that brought together a diverse group of researchers and drew upon experience from a program advisor from UNFCCC. Following the idea development, a proposal was finalized and additional resources were provided to support a second face-to-face meeting and the development of four projects, which are in progress. One of the key lessons learned was that effective collaboration across large networks requires active facilitation and leadership, which moves collaborative spaces beyond connecting individuals and toward building communities of practice.
Such a transdisciplinary and collaborative program model enables new ways of thinking about the challenges associated with climate change adaptation. For example, CARIAA researchers have produced reflections on how to enable effective science–policy interactions (Patra and Kantariya 2014), critical reviews of vulnerability assessments (Singh et al. 2016a) and arguments for gender to be a standard component of such assessments (Morchain et al., 2015). These transdisciplinary processes have allowed space for more fundamental critiques of the strong focus on adaptation, with arguments for consideration of the ways in which practices may be maladaptive in either the long term or at different scales (Jones et al. 2015). Researchers are utilizing the findings from transdisciplinary research, along with its emphasis on supporting better informed policy and practice, in each of the countries, regions and hotspots where it works. In Nepal, for example, CARIAA researchers were given lead roles in preparing the National Adaptation Plan, and three Ministries are actively engaged with the program and using its data to support decision making. The hotspot approach, coupled with its emphasis on impact on decision making, has challenged researchers to work simultaneously at regional, national and local scales. Recognizing that the biophysical and ecological systems of interest function at regional scales, and yet decisions tend to be made nationally and locally, has led many CARIAA researchers to grapple with innovative approaches that integrate regional data to support local-level decision making. For example, models have been developed to support decision making in areas such as agriculture (Siderius et al. 2016; Biemans et al. 2016), glacier melt (Collier et al. 2015), high-altitude precipitation (Dahri et al. 2016), migration (Lazar et al. 2015), tools for assessing adaptation (Chapman et al. 2016) and model selection with specific reference to river basins (Lutz 2016; Lutz et al. 2016). In addition to considering scale, CARIAA researchers have made the case for regional evidence-based decision making also requiring cross-sectoral thinking, particularly focussing on the complementarities and trade-offs between sectors (Rasul and Sharma 2015). Continued engagement with potential users of the research is a key component of the program strategy design, allowing them to respond to demand, align with priorities and engage in windows of policy and practice opportunity. Achieving this in reality is a challenge however, and research programs with explicit aims to support more informed policy and practice have to be strategic about where they place energy and emphasis in responding to needs of decision makers.
Moving forward/next steps
The hotspot approach has focused researchers on regional environmental change research, which maps on human vulnerability to climate change. However, we are encountering the deep challenge of regional researchers who intend to impact decision making and policy: matching research to the biophysical scales at which ecological change occurs can lead to a mismatch with the governance scales at which decisions are made. This aligns with the experience of others (Cash et al. 2006), and CARIAA researchers are at the forefront of efforts to confront this contradiction by broadening the repertoire of traditional research endeavors. This includes developing partnerships with practitioners creating ‘third spaces,’ wherein practitioners gain an understanding of research evidence processes and good academic practice, while researchers are continually challenged to think about how to link their research to impact and uptake. In recognition that not all relevant actors are involved at all times, and representative of all scales, ‘Research into Use’ is a core activity wherein dedicated personnel strategically engage with stakeholders, ensuring that the emerging findings reach new audiences, at the right time and in an appropriate form. An example of an innovative and powerful engagement practice supporting decision-making impact is real-time monitoring of coastal flooding using drones in the Volta Delta (e.g., https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkILRW5zXbo). The consortia are learning how to overcome the mismatch challenge by taking different approaches. One consortia has taken a demand-led policy first approach, ensuring that research questions are informed by decision maker needs. A second consortia is implementing transformative scenario planning as a means to obtain a greater understanding of the multi-level issues, barriers and enablers involved, which is a unique application of the method for climate change adaptation and may provide direction for its future use in research and planning.
Going forward, continuing to explore innovative ways to ensure that strong research is coupled with strong impact on policy and practice, will be a defining challenge for not only the CARIAA program, but for all researchers engaged in applied research at regional scales. Purposeful and ongoing reflection and learning are key to strengthening large, transdisciplinary research consortia. Documenting and sharing successes and failures as perceived both by researchers and decision makers is critical, and it is hoped that this Short Communication acts as a catalyst for a broader conversation about adaptive and responsive programming for climate change adaption research at regional scales.
This work was supported by the CARIAA program of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The views expressed in this work are those of the creators and do not necessarily represent those of the UK Government’s Department for International Development, the International Development Research Centre, Canada or its Board of Governors and are not necessarily attributable to their organizations.
- Adams S, Baarsch F, Bondeau A, Coumou D, Donner R, Frieler K, Hare B, Menon A, Perette M, Piontek F, Rehfeld K, Robinson A, Rocha M, Rogelj J, Runge J, Schaeffer M, Schewe J, Schleussner C, Schwan S, Serdeczny O, Svirejeva-Hopkins A, Vieweg M, Warszawski L (2013) Turn down the heat: climate extremes, regional impacts, and the case for resilience. World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Atiglo Y, Codjoe S (2015) Migration in the volta delta: A review of the literature. DECCMA working paper, deltas, vulnerability and climate change: migration and adaptation, IDRC project number 107642. http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/FINAL_GHANA-_Volta_Working_Paper_on_Migration_20160613_021759.pdf
- Basu R, Bazaz A (2016) Assessing climate change risks and contextual vulnerability in urban areas of semi-arid india: the case of Bangalore. ASSAR PMU, South Africa. http://www.assar.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/138/Info_briefs/Contextual%20vulnerability%20in%20Bangalore%20-%20CARIAA%20ASSAR%20Working%20Paper%203.pdf
- Bedelian C, Ogutu JO (2016) Trade offs for climate-resilient pastoral livelihoods in wildlife conservancies in the Mara ecosystem, Kenya. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Lo_Res_Trade-Offs-for-Climate-Resilient-Pastoral-Livelihoods-Mara-Ecosystem-Kenya.pdf
- Bhuiyan MR, Siddiqui T (2015) Migration in the Ganga-Brahmaputara-Meghna delta: a review of the literature. DECCMA working paper, deltas, vulnerability and climate change: migration and adaptation, IDRC project number 107642. http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/FINAL_BANGLADESH_GBM_Working_Paper_on_Migration_20170125_084730.pdf
- Castells-Quintana D (2015) Coping with climate risk: the role of institutions, governance and finance in private adaptation decision of the poor. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Coping-with-climate-risk-the-role-of-institutions-governance-and-finance-in-private-adaptation-decisions-of-the-poor.pdf
- Castells-Quintana D, Lopez-Uribe M, McDermott T (2016) Geography, institutions and development: a review of the long-run impacts of climate change. climate and development. doi: 10.1080/17565529.2016.1167665
- Chapman A, Tompkins EL, Vincent K, Day S (2016) A framework for the design and evaluation of adaptation pathways in large river deltas. DECCMA working paper, deltas, vulnerability and climate change: migration and adaptation, IDRC project number 107642. http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/A_framework_for_the_design_and_evaluation_of_adaptation_pathways_in_large_river_deltas_FINAL_20160926_114823.pdf
- Crawford A (2016) Review of current and planned adaptation action in Botswana. CARIAA working paper no 7. https://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/55863/1/IDL-55863.pdf International Development Research Centre, Ottawa
- Crawford A, Terton A (2016a) Review of current and planned adaptation action in Namibia. CARIAA working paper no 12. http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/55868/1/IDL-55868.pdf International Development Research Centre, Ottawa
- Crawford A, Terton A (2016b) Review of current and planned adaptation action in Tanzania. CARIAA working paper no 14. https://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/55870/1/IDL-55870.pdf International Development Research Centre, Ottawa
- Dasgupta P (2016) Assessing costs and benefits of climate change adaptation, HI-AWARE working paper #3. Kathmandu: HI-AWARE. http://lib.icimod.org/record/32321/files/hiawareCCA-WP3-016.pdf
- Daze A (2016) Review of current and planned adaptation action in Tajikistan. CARIAA working paper no 13. https://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/55869/1/IDL-55869.pdf International Development Research Centre, Ottawa
- Daze A, Echeverria D (2016) Review of current and planned adaptation action in Ghana. CARIAA working paper no 9. https://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/55865/1/IDL-55865.pdf International Development Research Centre, Ottawa
- Deryng, D (2015) Climate change impacts on crop productivity in global semi-arid areas and selected semi-arid economies. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/High-Res-climate-change-impacts-on-crop-productivity.pdf
- Dey S, Ghosh AK, Hazra S (2016) Review of West Bengal state adaptation Policies, Indian Bengal delta. DECCMA working paper, deltas, vulnerability and climate change: migration and adaptation, IDRC project number 107642. http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/Final_India_West_Bengal_policy_report_20160322_090808.pdf
- Dipama J-M (2016) Changement climatique et agriculture durable au Burkina Faso: Stratégies de résilience basées sur les savoirs locaux. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Changement-climatique-et-agriculture-durable-au-Burkina-Faso_-Low_Res.pdf (p 36)
- Echeverria D, Terton A (2016) Review of current and planned adaptation action in Ethiopia. CARIAA working paper no 8. https://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/55864/1/IDL-55864.pdf International Development Research Centre, Ottawa
- Few R, Satyal P, McGahey D, Leavy J, Budds J, Assen M, Camfield L, Loubser D, Adnew M, Bewket W (2015) vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in semi-arid regions of East Africa. ASSAR working paper, ASSAR PMU, South Africa. http://www.assar.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/138/RDS_reports/EAST-AFRICA/East%20Africa%20RDS%20full%20report%20-%20revised.pdf
- Gaye AT, Lo HM, Sakho-Djimbira S, Fall MS, Ndiaye I (2015) Senegal: country situation assessment. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Senegal-Country-Situation-Assessment.pdf
- Ghosh AK, Hazra S, Dey S (2016) Review of national adaptation policies, India. DECCMA working paper, deltas, vulnerability and climate change: migration and adaptation, IDRC project number 107642. http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/Final__India_Review_of_National_Adaptation_Policies_20160321_031707.pdf
- Gilmont M (2016) Analysing the economic development impact of semi-arid lands, and mitigation through food-trade water resource decoupling. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Analysing-the-economic-development-impact-of-semi-arid-lands-and-mitigation-through-food-trade-water-resource-decoupling_Low_Res.pdf
- Hallegatte S, Bangalore M, Bonzanigo L, Fay M, Kane T, Narloch U, Rozenberg J, Treguer D, Vogt-Schilb A (2016) Shock waves: managing the impacts of climate change on poverty. Climate change and development series. World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Hartwig R (2015) Percedsptions of climate variability, current exposure of households to shocks and coping in semi-arid lands: A case study from the central plateau region in Burkina Faso. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Perceptions-of-climate-variability_Low-Resolution.pdf
- Hazra S, Dey S, Ghosh AK (2016) Review of Odisha state adaptation policies, Mahanadi delta. DECCMA working paper, deltas, vulnerability and climate Change: migration and adaptation, IDRC project number 107642. http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/Final_IN_Mahanadi_policy_review_20160322_090713.pdf (p 30)
- IIHS, ATREE, WOTR, IITM (2015) Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in semi-arid areas of India. ASSAR working paper, ASSAR PMU, South Africa. http://www.assar.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/138/South_Asia/South%20Asia%20RDS%20full%20report_update.pdf
- IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, edited by M. Parry, O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. van der Linden and C. Hanson. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2014) Climate Change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1132 ppGoogle Scholar
- ISSC, Ids, UNESCO (2016) World social science report 2016, challenging inequalities: pathways to a just world. UNESCO Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Jobbins G, Conway D, Frankhauser S, Gueye B, Liwenga E, Lude E, Mitchell T, Montfort H, Suleri A (2016) Resilience, equity and growth in semi-arid economies: a research agenda. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Resilience-equity-and-growth-in-semi-arid-economies-a-research-agenda_High_-Res.pdf
- Jones L, Carabine E, Schipper L (2015) (Re)Conceptualising maladaptation in policy and practice: towards an evaluative framework. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Reconceptusalising-maladaptation.pdf
- Lazar, AN, Nicholls RJ, Payo A, Adams H, Mortreux C, Suckall N, Vincent K, Sugata H, Amisigo BA, Rahman M, Haque A, Adger N, Hill C (2015) A method to assess migration and adaptation in deltas: a preliminary fast track assessment, DECCMA working paper, deltas, vulnerability and climate change: migration and adaptation, IDRC project number 107642. http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/WP5_Fast_Track_Report_2015-12-08_final_20151208_031334.pdf
- Lemma A, Jouanjean M-A, Darko E (2015) Climate change, private sector and value chains: constraints and adaptation strategies. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Climate-change-private-sector-and-value-chains.pdf
- Lutz A (2016) Impact of climate change on the hydrology of high mountain Asia. Utrecht Studies in Earth Sciences, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
- Lutz AF, Immerzeel W (2016) Reference climate dataset for the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra river basins. HI-AWARE working paper 2. Kathmandu: HI-AWARE. http://lib.icimod.org/record/32311/files/HIAWARE%20WP2.pdf (p. 34)
- Mabhuye E, Yanda P, Maganga F, Liwenga E, Kateka A, Henku A, Malik N, Bavo C (2015) natural capital endowments and dynamics of the changing climate in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs): experiences from Africa and Asia. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Low-Resolution_Natural-capital-endowment-and-dynamics-of-the-changing-climate-in-ASALs.pdf
- Maharjan A, Prakash A, Gurung CG (2016) Migration and the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal: effect on rescue and relief processes and lessons for the future, HI-AWARE working paper #4. Kathmandu: HI-AWARE. http://lib.icimod.org/record/32310/files/Working%20Paper.pdf (p. 35)
- Mensah A, Anderson K, Nelson W (2016) Review of adaptation related policies in Ghana. DECCMA working paper, deltas, vulnerability and climate change: migration and adaptation, IDRC project number 107642. http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/DECCMA_WP6_Ghana_Adaptation_policies_working_paper_final_20160406_035111.pdf
- Mortreux C, Adams H (2015) Setting the scene: national and deltaic migration trends in India, Bangladesh and Ghana. DECCMA working paper, deltas, vulnerability and climate change: migration and adaptation, IDRC project number 107642. http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/FINAL_Working_paper_on_migration_130715_20160613_020530.pdf
- Mustaeva N, Wyes H, Mohr B, Kayumov A (2015) Tajikistan: Country situation assessment. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Tajikistan_Country_Situation_Assessment.pdf
- Newborne P, Tucker J (2015) The urban-rural Water interface: a preliminary study in Burkina Faso. PRISE working paper. https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/10221.pdf
- Njoka JT, Yanda P, Maganga F, Liwenga E, Kateka A, Henku A, Mabhuye E, Malik N, Bavo C (2016) Kenya: Country situation assessment. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Low-Res_Kenya-CSA.pdf
- Padgham J, Abubakari A, Ayivor J, Dietrich K, Fosu-Mensah B, Gordon C, Habtezion S, Lawson E, Mensah A, Nukpezah D, Ofori B, Piltz S, Sidibe A, Sissoko M, Totin E, Traore S (2015) Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the semi-arid regions of West Africa. ASSAR working paper, ASSAR PMU, South Africa. http://www.assar.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/138/RDS_reports/West_africa/West%20Africa%20Regional%20Diagnostic%20Study.pdf
- Patra J (2016) Review of current and planned adaptation action in India. CARIAA working paper No 10. https://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/55866/1/IDL-55866.pdf International Development Research Centre, Ottawa
- Patra J, Kantariya K (2014) Science-policy interface for disaster risk management in India: toward an enabling environment. Curr Sci 107:39–45Google Scholar
- Qaisrani A (2015) Connecting the dots: linking climate change resilience to human capital. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Connecting-the-dots-linking-climate-change-resilience-to-human-capital.pdf
- Pohl C, Rist S, Zimmerman A, Fry P, Gurung GS, Schneider F, Speranza CI, Kiteme B, Boillat S, Serrano E, Hadorn GH, Wiesmann U (2010) Researchers’ roles in knowledge co-production: experience from sustainability research in Kenya, Switzerland, Bolivia and Nepal. Sci Public Policy 37(4):267–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rokitzki M, Morchain D (2015) Climate change adaptation practice in semi-arid regions: views and insights by practitioners. ASSAR working paper, ASSAR PMU, South Africa. http://www.assar.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/138/RDS_reports/cross-region/Survey%20on%20CCA%20Practice%20in%20Semi-Arid%20Regions.pdf
- Saeed F, Salik KM, Ishfaq S (2016) Climate Induced Rural-to-Urban Migration in Pakistan. PRISE Working Paper. Available online at: http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Low_Res-Climate-induced-rural-to-urban-migration-in-Pakistan.pdf
- Salik KM, Ishfaq S, Saeed F, Noel E, Syed Q (2015) Pakistan: country situation assessment. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Pakistan-Country-Situation-Assessment.pdf
- Samling CL, Das S, Hazra S (2015) Migration in the Indian Bengal delta and the Mahanadi delta: a review of the literature. DECCMA working paper, deltas, vulnerability and climate change: migration and adaptation, IDRC project number 107642. http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/FINAL_INDIA_Migration_IBD_and_Mahanadi_Working_Paper_JUL2015_20160613_021218.pdf
- Siderius C, Biemans H, van Walsum PE, van Ierland EC, Kabat P, Hellegers PJ (2016) flexible strategies for coping with rainfall variability: seasonal adjustments in cropped area in the Ganges Basin. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0149397 (1-23)Google Scholar
- Simonet C, Jobbins G (2016) Understanding the patterns of climate-resilient development: the case of Senegal. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Understanding-patterns-of-climate-resilient-development-%E2%80%93-the-case-of-Senegal_Low-Res.pdf
- Singh C, Gajjar SP, Deshpande T (2016b) Policies, projects and People: exploring the adaptation-development spectrum in India. ASSAR PMU, South Africa. http://www.assar.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/138/Working_Papers/CARIAA-ASSAR%20working%20paper%202%20-%20Policies,%20Projects%20and%20People.pdf
- Spear D, Haimbili E, Angula M, Baudoin M-A, Hegga S, Zaroug M, Okeyo A (2015) Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in semi-arid areas in Southern Africa. ASSAR working paper, ASSAR PMU, South Africa. http://www.assar.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/138/RDS_reports/SAFRICA/Southern%20Africa%20RDS%20full%20report.pdf
- Thornton PK, Jones PG, Owiyo T, Kruska RL, Herrero M, Orindi V, Bhadwal S, Kristjanson P, Notenbaert A, Bekele N, Omolo A (2008) Climate change and poverty in Africa: mapping hotspots of vulnerability. Afr J Agric Resour Econ 2(1):24–44Google Scholar
- UN (2015a) The millennium development goals report: 2015. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- UN (2015b) Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. A/RES/70/1. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Vincent K, Cull T (2016) Scoping report on adaptation finance initiatives in Bangladesh, Ghana and India. DECCMA working paper, deltas, vulnerability and climate change: migration and adaptation, IDRC project number 107642. http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/D6_6_1_Adaptation_finance_initiatives_in_Bangladesh_Ghana_India_final_20160324_084615.pdf
- Wade CT, Toure O, Diop M (2015) Gestion des risques climatiques. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Climate-Risk-Management-Report.pdf
- Waldinger M, Fankhauser S (2015) Climate change and migration in developing countries: evidence and implications for PRISE countries policy paper, Centre for Climate Change Economics And Policy and Grantham Research Institute on climate change and the environment, London, UK. http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Climate-change-and-migration-in-developing-countries_final.pdf
- Wetta C, Dipama J-M, Akouwerabou D, Sampana L (2015) Burkina Faso: country situation assessment. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Burkina-Faso-CSA-Low-Res.pdf
- Yanda P, Maganga F, Liwenga E, Kateka A, Henku A, Mabhuye E, Malik N, Bavo C (2015) Tanzania: country situation assessment. PRISE working paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Low_Res_Tanzania-Country_Situation_Assessment.pdf
- Zamudio AN (2016) Review of current and planned adaptation action in Mali. CARIAA working paper No 11. http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/55867/1/IDL-55867.pdf International Development Research Centre, Ottawa
- Zamudio AN, Parry J (2016) Review of current and planned adaptation action in Bangladesh. CARIAA working paper No 6. http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/55862/1/IDL-55862.pdf International Development Research Centre, Ottawa
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.