Prevalence, resistance patterns, and characterization of integrons of Shigella flexneri isolated from Jiangsu Province in China, 2001–2011

  • Y. Xu
  • L. Zhuang
  • H. Kang
  • P. Ma
  • T. Xu
  • S. PanEmail author
  • B. GuEmail author
Original Article


Objective: To provide the epidemiology, resistance pattern, and characterization of integrons in Shigella flexneri isolated between 2001 and 2011 in Jiangsu Province. Method: A total of 624 strains of S. flexneri were collected from both outpatients and inpatients in hospitals in Jiangsu Province from January 2001 to December 2011. The Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method was used to perform the antimicrobial susceptibility test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used in the detection of integrons. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied in the homology studies. Result: Serotype 2a accounted for the largest proportion in S. flexneri, namely 26.4 %. Notably, an increasing trend was detected in the resistance to common antimicrobial agents during the period 2001–2011. In recent years, more than 80.0 % isolates of S. flexneri have proved to be resistant to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. The positive rates of class 1, class 2, and the atypical class 1 integrons in S. flexneri are 69.3 %, 87.8 %, and 89.2 % respectively. Most integrons detected in our research carry genes encoding resistance to trimethoprim and streptomycin. Conclusion: Antimicrobial resistance in S. flexneri has demonstrated a continuous rising trend in Jiangsu Province. A high prevalence of integrons and gene cassettes play an important role in the transmission of drug resistance in S. flexneri. Effective measures are urgently needed to control the spread of multi-drug-resistant S. flexneri, and more continuing active surveillance of antimicrobial resistance should be established worldwide, especially in developing countries.


Antimicrobial Resistance Jiangsu Province Norfloxacin Nalidixic Acid Resistance Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Compliance with ethical standards


This research was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81000754, 81471994), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20151154), and a youth science and technology innovation team project of Xuzhou Medical University in 2015.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

No human participants or animals are involved in this research.

Supplementary material

10096_2016_2671_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 2067 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of General MedicineThe First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Acute Infectious Disease Prevention and ControlJiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and ControlNanjingChina
  3. 3.Department of Laboratory MedicineAffiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical UniversityXuzhouChina
  4. 4.Medical Technology Institute of Xuzhou Medical UniversityXuzhouChina
  5. 5.Department of Laboratory MedicineThe First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina

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