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Hydrogeology Journal

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 853–867 | Cite as

Estimation of groundwater flow from temperature monitoring in a borehole heat exchanger during a thermal response test

  • Mayumi YoshiokaEmail author
  • Shinichi Takakura
  • Youhei Uchida
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Abstract

To estimate the groundwater flow around a borehole heat exchanger (BHE), thermal properties of geological core samples were measured and a thermal response test (TRT) was performed in the Tsukuba upland, Japan. The thermal properties were measured at 57 points along a 50-m-long geological core, consisting predominantly of sand, silt, and clay, drilled near the BHE. In this TRT, the vertical temperature in the BHE was also monitored during and after the test. Results for the thermal properties of the core samples and from the monitoring indicated that groundwater flow enhanced thermal transfers, especially at shallow depths. The groundwater velocities around the BHE were estimated using a two-dimensional numerical model with monitoring data on temperature changes. According to the results, the estimated groundwater velocity was generally consistent with hydrogeological data from previous studies, except for the data collected at shallow depths consisting of a clay layer. The reasons for this discrepancy at shallow depths were predicted to be preferential flow and the occurrence of vertical flow through the BHE grout, induced by the hydrogeological conditions.

Keywords

Ground-coupled heat pump system Thermal response test Thermal conditions Groundwater flow Japan 

Estimation des écoulements d’eau souterraine par un suivi de température dans une sonde géothermique verticale, pendant un test de réponse thermique

Résumé

Pour estimer les écoulements d’eau souterraine autour d’une sonde géothermique verticale (SGV), les propriétés thermiques d’échantillons géologiques ont été mesurées et un test de réponse thermique (TRT) a été mis en œuvre sur le plateau de Tsukuba, au Japon. Les propriétés thermiques ont été mesurées en 57 points répartis le long d’un profil géologique de 50 m, essentiellement constitué de sables, de silts et d’argiles, forés près de la SGV. Lors de ce TRT, la température verticale dans la SGV a aussi été suivie pendant et après le test. Les résultats issus des propriétés thermiques des échantillons et du suivi lors des tests indiquent que l’écoulement d’eau souterraine augmente les transferts thermiques, en particulier aux faibles profondeurs. Les vitesses d’écoulement autour de la SGV ont été estimées en utilisant un modèle numérique à deux dimensions, avec les données de suivi des variations de température. Sur la base de ces résultats, les vitesses d’écoulement estimées des eaux souterraines étaient globalement cohérentes avec les données hydrogéologiques d’études antérieures, en dehors des données collectées aux faibles profondeurs correspondant aux formations argileuses. Les raisons de cette différence aux faibles profondeurs seraient liées à des écoulements préférentiels et à l’existence d’écoulements verticaux via la SGV, induits par les conditions hydrogéologiques.

Estimación del flujo de agua subterránea a partir del monitoreo de temperatura en un intercambiador de calor en un pozo durante un ensayos de respuesta térmica

Resumen

Para estimar el flujo de agua subterránea alrededor de un intercambiador de calor de pozo (BHE), se midieron las propiedades térmicas de las muestras de testigos geológicos y se realizó un ensayo de respuesta térmica (TRT) en el altiplano de Tsukuba, Japón. Las propiedades térmicas se midieron en 57 puntos a lo largo de testigos geológicos de 50 m de longitud, que consistían principalmente de arena, limo y arcilla, perforados cerca del BHE. En este TRT, la temperatura vertical en el BHE también se controló durante y después del ensayo. Los resultados de las propiedades térmicas de las muestras del testigo y del monitoreo indicaron que el flujo del agua subterránea mejoró las transferencias térmicas, especialmente a poca profundidad. Las velocidades del agua subterránea alrededor del BHE se estimaron utilizando un modelo numérico bidimensional con datos del monitoreo de los cambios de temperatura. De acuerdo con los resultados, la velocidad estimada del agua subterránea fue generalmente consistente con los datos hidrogeológicos de los estudios previos, a excepción de los datos recolectados a poca profundidad que consisten en una capa de arcilla. Se pronosticó que las razones de esta discrepancia a poca profundidad son el flujo preferencial y la ocurrencia de flujo vertical a través del relleno del BHE, inducido por las condiciones hidrogeológicas.

热响应试验期间根据钻孔热量交换器的温度监测估算地下水流

摘要

为了估算钻孔热量交换器周边的地下水流,在日本Tsukuba高地测量了地质岩心样品的热特性,进行了热响应试验。沿50米长的地质岩心50个点测量了热特性,岩心主要包括砂、粉砂和粘土,钻孔地点位于钻孔热交换器附近。在这个热响应试验中,试验期间以及试验后还监测了钻孔热交换器中的垂直温度。岩心样品的热特性结果及监测结果显示,地下水流提高了热传输,特别是在浅部更是如此。利用温度变化监测数据采用二维数值模型估算了钻孔热交换器周围的地下水速度。根据结果来看,估算的地下水速度通常与先前研究中的水文地质数据一致,包含粘土层的浅部处收集的数据除外。预测了浅部这种不符现象的原因,原因就是水文地质条件导致出现的优先流和穿过钻孔热交换器泥浆的垂直流。

Estimativa do fluxo de águas subterrâneas a partir do monitoramento de temperatura em tubos permutadores de calor durante um teste de resposta térmica

Resumo

Para estimar o fluxo de águas subterrâneas no entorno de um tubo permutador de calor (borehole heat exchanger – BHE), foram medidas as propriedades térmicas em testemunhos geológicos e realizado um teste de resposta térmica (TRT) na região do monte Tsukuba, Japão. As propriedades térmicas foram medidas em 57 pontos ao longo de um testemunho de 50 metros de comprimento, com predomínio de areia, silte e argila, amostrado próximo ao BHE. No TRT, a temperatura vertical no BHE também foi monitorada durante e após a realização do teste. Os resultados das propriedades térmicas das amostras de testemunho e do monitoramento indicaram que o fluxo de águas subterrâneas elevou as transferências térmicas, sobretudo em profundidades rasas. As velocidades das águas subterrâneas em torno do BHE foram estimadas utilizando um modelo numérico bidimensional com dados de monitoramento das mudanças de temperatura. Conforme os resultados, a velocidade estimada para as águas subterrâneas está consistente com dados hidrogeológicos de estudos anteriores, exceto para os dados coletados em profundidades rasas em uma camada de argila. Os motivos para esta discrepância em profundidades rasas foram preditas como sendo um fluxo preferencial e a ocorrência de fluxo vertical através do cimento do BHE, induzida pelas condições hidrogeológicas.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge Seiichi Toshimitsu, Koichi Shimokawa, Akira Sekiguchi, and all members of the Geological Museum for kindly supporting this study. We also would like to thank Tomonori Naya and Tsutomu Nakazawa of the Geological Survey of Japan, who provided information about the core samples. Additionally, we wish to thank the anonymous reviewers’ highly valuable comments.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mayumi Yoshioka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shinichi Takakura
    • 1
  • Youhei Uchida
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Geological Survey of JapanTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Renewable Energy Research CenterKoriyamaJapan

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