Restoration of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services on Agricultural Land
- 3.8k Downloads
Cultivation and cropping are major causes of destruction and degradation of natural ecosystems throughout the world. We face the challenge of maintaining provisioning services while conserving or enhancing other ecosystem services and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. There is a range of possibilities within two types of intervention, namely “land sharing” and “land separation”; the former advocates the enhancement of the farmed environment, but the latter a separation between land designated for farming versus conservation. Land sharing may involve biodiversity-based agricultural practices, learning from traditional farming, changing from conventional to organic agriculture and from “simple” crops and pastures to agro-forestry systems, and restoring or creating specific elements to benefit wildlife and particular services without decreasing agricultural production. Land separation in the farmland context involves restoring or creating non-farmland habitat at the expense of field-level agricultural production—for example, woodland on arable land. Restoration by land sharing has the potential to enhance agricultural production, other ecosystem services and biodiversity at both the field and landscape scale; however, restoration by land separation would provide these benefits only at the landscape scale. Although recent debate has contrasted these approaches, we suggest they should be used in combination to maximize benefits. Furthermore, we suggest “woodland islets”, an intermediate approach between land abandonment and farmland afforestation, for ecological restoration in extensive agricultural landscapes. This approach allows reconciliation of farmland production, conservation of values linked to cultural landscapes, enhancement of biodiversity, and provision of a range of ecosystem services. Beyond academic research, restoration projects within agricultural landscapes are essential if we want to halt environmental degradation and biodiversity loss.
Keywordsagroforestry financial support land separation land sharing organic agriculture reconciliation secondary succession tree plantations woodland islets
- BirdLife International. 2008. State of the world’s birds: indicators for our changing world. Cambridge: BirdLife International.Google Scholar
- Born H. 2004. Organic Marketing Resources [online]. http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/markres.html.
- Cooper HD, Spillane C, Hodgkin T, Eds. 2001. Broadening the genetic base of crop production. New York: CABI Publishing.Google Scholar
- Cramer VA, Hobbs RJ, Eds. 2007. Old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland. Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
- European Bird Census Council. 2010. Pan-European common bird monitoring scheme [online]. http://www.ebcc.info/.
- FAO. 2006. The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 [online]. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/forestry.
- FAO. 2009. The resource outlook to 2050: By how much do land, water and crop yields need to increase by 2050? [online]. FAO, Rome. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012/ak971e/ak971e00.pdf.
- FAO. 2010. The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 [online]. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i2000s/i2000s.pdf).
- FAO. 2011. State of the World’s Forests 2011 [online]. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i2000e/i2000e00.htm).
- FAOSTAT 2011. FAO Statistics Division. http://faostat.fao.org. Accessed 16 Feb 2011.
- Fischer J, Brosi B, Daily GC, Ehrlich PR, Goldman R, Goldstein J, Lindenmayer DB, Manning AD, Mooney HA, Pejchar L, Ranganathan J, Tallis H. 2008. Should agricultural policies encourage land sparing or wildlife-friendly farming? Fron Ecol Environ 6:382–7.Google Scholar
- Foley JA, Ramankutty N, Brauman KA, Cassidy ES, Gerber JS, Johnston M, Mueller ND, O’Connell C, Ray DK, West PC, Balzer CB, Bennett LM, Carpenter SR, Hill J, Monfreda C, Polasky S, Rockstrom J, Sheehan J, Siebert S, Tilman D, Zaks DPM. 2011. Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature 478:337–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Geiger F, Bengtsson J, Berendse F, Weisser WW, Emmerson M, Morales MB, Ceryngier P, Liira J, Tscharntke T, Winqvist C, Eggers S, Bommarco R, Paärt T, Bretagnolle V, Plantegenest M, Clement LW, Dennis C, Palmer C, Oñate JJ, Guerrero I, Hawro V, Aavik T, Thies C, Flohre A, Hänke S, Fischer C, Goedhart PW, Inchausti P. 2010. Persistent negative effects of pesticides on biodiversity and biological control potential on European farmland. Basic Appl Ecol 11:97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gonzalo-Turpin H, Couix N, Hazard L. 2008. Rethinking partnerships with the aim of producing knowledge with practical relevance: a case study in the field of ecological restoration. Ecol Soc 13:53.Google Scholar
- Grau HR, Aide M. 2008. Globalization and land-use transitions in Latin America. Ecol Soc 13:16.Google Scholar
- IPCC. 2007. Climate change 2007. Synthesis Report. IPCC, Geneve [online]. http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm.
- Jarvis DI, Brown AHD, Cuong PH, Collado-Panduro L, Latournerie-Moreno L, Gyawali S, Tanto T, Sawadogo M, Mar I, Sadiki M, Hue NTN, Arias-Reyes L, Balma D, Bajracharya J, Castillo F, Rijal D, Belqadi L, Ranag R, Saidi S, Ouedraogo J, Zangre R, Rhrib K, Chavez JL, Schoen DJ, Sthapit B, De Santis P, Fadda C, Hodgkin T. 2008. A global perspective of the richness and evenness of traditional crop-variety diversity maintained by farming communities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:5326–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kimble JM. 2002. Agricultural practices and policies for carbon sequestration in soil. Tampa: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Kleijn D, Baquero RA, Clough Y, Díaz M, Esteban J, Fernández F, Gabriel D, Herzog F, Holzschuh A, Jöhl R, Knop E, Kruess A, Marshall EJ, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T, Verhulst J, West TM, Yela JL. 2006. Mixed biodiversity benefits of agro-environment schemes in five European countries. Ecol Lett 9:243–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lombard AT, Cowling RM, Vlok JHJ, Fabricius C. 2010. Designing conservation corridors in production landscapes: assessment methods, implementation issues, and lessons learned. Ecol Soc 15:7.Google Scholar
- McNeely JA, Scherr SJ. 2003. Ecoagriculture: strategies to feed the world and savewild biodiversity. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
- Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human-well being. New York: Island Press.Google Scholar
- Newton AC, Tejedor N, Eds. 2011. Principles and practice of forest landscape restoration: case studies from the drylands of Latin America. Gland: IUCN.Google Scholar
- Pereira HM, Leadley PW, Proença V, Alkemade R, Scharlemann JPW, Fernandez-Manjarrés JF, Araújo MB, Balvanera P, Biggs R, Cheung WWL, Chini L, Cooper HD, Gilman EL, Guénette S, Hurtt GC, Huntington HP, Mace GM, Oberdorff T, Revenga C, Rodrigues P, Acholes RJ, Sumaila UR, Walpole M. 2010. Scenarios for global biodiversity in the 21st century. Science 330:1496–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pilgrim ES, Macleod CJA, Blackwell MSA, Bol R, Hogan DV, Chadwick DR, Cardenas L, Misselbrook TH, Haygarth PM, Brazier RE, Hobbs P, Hodgson C, Jarvis S, Dungait J, Murray PJ, Firbank LG, Donald LS. 2010. Interactions among agricultural production and other ecosystem services delivered from European temperate grassland systems. Adv Agron 109:117–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pywell RF, Bullock JM, Hopkins A, Walker KJ, Sparks TH, Burke MJW, Hayes MJ, Tallowin JB, Walker KJ, Meek WR, Carvell C, Warman LA. 2010. Minimizing environmental impacts of grassland weed management: can Cirsium arvense be controlled without herbicides? Grass Forage Sci 65:159–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reidsma P, Ewert F. 2008. Regional farm diversity can reduce vulnerability of food production to climate change. Ecol Soc 13:38.Google Scholar
- Rey Benayas JM, Martins A, Nicolau JM, Schulz J. 2007. Abandonment of agricultural land: an overview of drivers and consequences. Perspect Agric Vet Sci Nutr Nat Res 2:057.Google Scholar
- Ricketts TH, Regetz J, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Bogdanski A, Gemmill-Herren B, Greenleaf SS, Klein AM, Mayfield MM, Morandin LA, Ochieng A, Viana BF. 2008. Landscape effects on crop pollination services: are there general patterns? Ecol Lett 11:499–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losada MR, Eds. 2009. Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Society for Ecological Restoration International Science and Policy Working Group. 2004. The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration [online]. Society for Ecological Restoration International. http://www.ser.org/content/ecological_restoration_primer.as).
- TEEB. 2010. The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: mainstreaming the economics of nature: a synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB. http://www.teebweb.org/.
- UK National Ecosystem Assessment. 2011. The UK National Ecosystem Assessment: synthesis of the key findings. Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC.Google Scholar
- Vandermeer J, Perfecto I. 1995. Breakfast of biodiversity: the truth about rainforest destruction. Oakland, CA: Food First Books.Google Scholar
- WWF. 2010. Living Planet Report 2010. Biodiversity, biocapacity and development [online]. WWF, Gland. http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/all_publications/living_planet_report/.