Do edible oils reduce bacterial colonization of enamel in situ?
- 577 Downloads
Edible oils are an empiric approach for the prevention of oral diseases. The present in situ study investigated the effect of edible oils on initial bacterial colonization of enamel surfaces.
Methods and materials
Initial biofilm formation was performed on enamel specimens mounted on maxillary splints and carried by eight subjects. After 1 min of pellicle formation, rinses with safflower oil, olive oil and linseed oil were performed for 10 min. Application of chlorhexidine for 1 min served as positive control. Afterwards, the slabs were carried for 8 h overnight. Samples carried for 8 h without any rinse served as negative controls. The amount of adherent bacteria was determined by DAPI staining (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and live–dead staining (BacLight). Additionally, determination of colony forming units was performed after desorption of the bacteria. TEM evaluation was carried out after application of the rinses.
The number of adherent bacteria on control samples was 6.1 ± 8.1 × 105/cm2 after 8 h (DAPI). Fluorescence microscopic data from DAPI staining and live–dead staining as well as from the determination of CFU revealed no significant effects of rinsing with oils on the amount of adherent bacteria compared to the non-rinsed control samples. However, with chlorhexidine a significant reduction in the number of bacteria by more than 85 % was achieved (DAPI, chlorhexidine: 8.2 ± 17.1 × 104/cm2). The ratio of viable to dead bacteria was almost equal (1:1) irrespective of the rinse adopted as recorded with BacLight. TEM indicated accumulation of oil micelles at the pellicle's surface and modification of its ultrastructure.
Rinses with edible oils have no significant impact on the initial pattern and amount of bacterial colonization on enamel over 8 h.
Rinses with edible oils cannot be recommended for efficient reduction of oral biofilm formation.
KeywordsPellicle Biofilm In situ Edible oil Lipids DAPI BacLight
The study was supported by a grant from the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, # HA 5192/2-1; # KU1271/6‐1). The authors would like to thank W. Hoth-Hannig, B. Spitzmüller, S. Basche and S. Pötschke for the excellent support in the laboratory.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Longbottom, C, Ekstrand, K, Zero, D, Kambara, M (2009) Novel preventive treatment options. Monogr Oral Sci 155–163Google Scholar
- 3.Vissink A, Mitchell JB, Baum BJ, Limesand KH, Jensen SB, Fox PC, Elting LS, Langendijk JA, Coppes RP, Reyland ME (2010) Clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients: successes and barriers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 78:983–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Marsh P, Martin M (1999) Oral microbiology, 4th edn. Wright, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 17.Doyle R, Rosenberg M (eds) (1990) Microbilal cell surface hydrophobicity. American Society for Microbiology, Washigton, DCGoogle Scholar
- 19.Carluccio MA, Siculella L, Ancora MA, Massaro M, Scoditti E, Storelli C, Visioli F, Distante A, De Caterina R (2003) Olive oil and red wine antioxidant polyphenols inhibit endothelial activation: antiatherogenic properties of Mediterranean diet phytochemicals. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23:622–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Al-Ahmad A, Wunder A, Auschill TM, Follo M, Braun G, Hellwig E, Arweiler NB (2007) The in vivo dynamics of Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces naeslundii, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Veillonella spp. in dental plaque biofilm as analysed by five-colour multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization. J Med Microbiol 56:681–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.Stein J, Truby K, Wood CD, Gardner M, Swain G, Kavanagh C, Kovach B, Schultz M, Wiebe D, Holm E, Montemarano J, Wendt D, Smith C, Meyer A (2003) Silicone foul release coatings: effect of the interaction of oil and coating functionalities on the magnitude of macrofouling attachment strengths. Biofouling 19(Suppl):71–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Knörr W., DP, Grützmacher R., Höfer R. (1995) Development of new fields of application for linseed oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 97:5Google Scholar
- 52.Perez-Jimenez F, Alvarez de Cienfuegos G, Badimon L, Barja G, Battino M, Blanco A, Bonanome A, Colomer R, Corella-Piquer D, Covas I, Chamorro-Quiros J, Escrich E, Gaforio JJ, Garcia Luna PP, Hidalgo L, Kafatos A, Kris-Etherton PM, Lairon D, Lamuela-Raventos R, Lopez-Miranda J, Lopez-Segura F, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Mata P, Mataix J, Ordovas J, Osada J, Pacheco-Reyes R, Perucho M, Pineda-Priego M, Quiles JL, Ramirez-Tortosa MC, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Sanchez-Rovira P, Solfrizzi V, Soriguer-Escofet F, de la Torre-Fornell R, Trichopoulos A, Villalba-Montoro JM, Villar-Ortiz JR, Visioli F (2005) International conference on the healthy effect of virgin olive oil. Eur J Clin Invest 35:421–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar