PLIF surgery with titanium-coated PEEK or uncoated PEEK cages: a prospective randomised clinical and radiological study

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to compare clinical results and fusion rates of uncoated polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages with titanium-coated PEEK cages in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery.

Methods

A prospective randomised study including 60 patients with one- or two-segment lumbar degenerative diseases. Patients received either titanium-coated PEEK cages (group A) or uncoated PEEK cages (group B). Fusion rates were evaluated on plain X-rays and CT scans after 6 and 12 months. Clinical follow-up (visual analogue scale, VAS; Oswestry Disability Index score, ODI; EQ-5D) was performed for 24 months.

Results

Fifty-five patients (92%) (36 female, 19 male) had a complete follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic, peri- or intraoperative data between groups A and B. ODI, VAS and EQ-5D improved significantly (p < 0.001) after surgery without statistically significant differences between the two groups. Overall, 65 operated segments could be evaluated for fusion (group A: 29 segments, group B: 36 segments, p = 0.6). Osseous integration of the cage surface improved significantly (p < 0.001) in both groups between 6 and 12 months after surgery. At 12-month follow-up, neither radiolucency nor signs of instability or dislocation were noted. Fusion was present in CT scans as follows: (a) bone growth through cage pores (A: 100%, B: 100%); (b) bone growth outside the cages (A: 48%, B: 61%; p = 0.3).

Conclusions

PEEK and titanium-coated PEEK cages for PLIF produce equally favourable clinical and radiological results up to 24 months post-surgery. The fusion rate was not different.

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Acknowledgement

We would like to thank our colleagues Stephan Weil, Wolfgang Dube, and Sarah Winkelkotte for their invaluable support for this study.

Funding

This study was supported with a financial grant by Advanced Medical Technologies AG, Germany.

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Correspondence to Klaus John Schnake.

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Dr. Schnake received renumeration for consulting from Advanced Medical Technology AG, Germany. The other authors report no conflict of interest.

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Schnake, K.J., Fleiter, N., Hoffmann, C. et al. PLIF surgery with titanium-coated PEEK or uncoated PEEK cages: a prospective randomised clinical and radiological study. Eur Spine J (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06642-x

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Keywords

  • Titanium-coated cage
  • PEEK cage
  • Lumbar spine
  • Randomised controlled trial
  • Posterior lumbar interbody fusion