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Intrinsically patterned electrical systems: physical requirements and experimental demonstration


This paper introduces a method of replicating electrical circuits through a series of specific requirements as part of a design methodology referred to as Intrinsically Patterned Electrical Systems (IPES) processing methodology. IPESs are unique in that they allow for replication of a circuit directly using the circuit as a pattern for molding, without the use of an intermediate mold. In this study, the IPES processing methodology requirements have been met by using a set of specific mechanical manipulations and a combination of paraffin wax as a substrate and liquid gallium to form a conductive layer. The intent of the IPES methodology is twofold; it could be used for rapid, lower-cost manufacturing or in the repair of damaged printed circuit boards since the damaged circuit can be replicated through the mechanical manipulations detailed by IPES processing methodology requirements. Specifically, this paper investigates the possibility of IPES methodology to meet manufacturing requirements, which is demonstrated through the conducted computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. This paper also includes a short physical example of a simplistic circuit which is replicated using the IPES processing methodology.

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Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.


This research was completely self-funded.

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Conceptualization: JC; Methodology: JC; Formal analysis and investigation: JC; Writing—original draft preparation: JC; Writing—review and editing: JW, RG; Funding acquisition: JC; Resources: JC; Supervision: RG.

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Correspondence to John Cotter.

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Cotter, J., Wang, J. & Guldiken, R. Intrinsically patterned electrical systems: physical requirements and experimental demonstration. Microsyst Technol 27, 307–314 (2021).

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