Calcitic microlens arrays in Archaster typicus: microstructural evidence for an advanced photoreception system in modern starfish
- 348 Downloads
Recent studies have shown that in some light-sensitive species of an brittlestar (Asteroidea, Echinodermata), the upper surface of the dorsal arm plate bears arrays of hemispherical microstructures which in combination with underlying neural bundles and intraskeletal chromatophores probably function as a compound eye. These calcitic lenses possess superior properties such as light weight, mechanical strength, and very low aberration and birefringence; they display a unique focusing effect, signal enhancement, intensity adjustment, angular selectivity, and photochromic activity. The discovery of these unique optical structures revealed that brittlestar visual system is more sophisticated than initially thought and has inspired active interest toward designing of biomimetic highly tunable optical elements for a wide variety of cutting-edge technological applications. Up to this moment, analogous spherical calcitic lenses have been only reported in a few species of modern brittlestars and starfish. Similar calcitic microlenses have been also observed in the Late Cretaceous fossil echinoderms. Here, we report the structural evidence for the presence of calcitic microlenses in an extant species of starfish Archaster typicus. The close resemblance in microstructure and location between the transparent regions of compact stereom described above and microlenses in the photosensitive brittlestar Ophiocoma wendtii suggests that these regions may be involved with the photoreceptor system in A. typicus.
KeywordsEchinoderms Starfish Archaster typicus Microlenses Electron microscopy
The authors would like to thank Janessa C. Cobb and Joan Herrera (Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute), John Lawrence (University of South Florida), Mary Wicksten (Texas A&M University), and Valerie Sponsel (University of Texas at San Antonio) for their assistance with the starfish identification. This work was supported by Welch Foundation (AX-1615), National Science Foundation (NSF) (DMR-1103730), National Science Foundation—Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (NSF-PREM, DMR-0934218), National Institutes of Health (NIH) Research Centers in Minority Institutions Program (RCMI) Nanotechnology and Human Health Core (RCMI Grant 5G12RR013646-12), facilities of Kleberg Advanced Microscopy Center (KAMiC), and NIH RCMI Biophotonics Core (RCMI Grant G12MD007591) at UTSA.
This study was performed on previously air-dried specimens of the starfish Archaster typicus. Ethical approval by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Texas at San Antonio was not required because no experiments involving live vertebrate animals have been conducted.
- Cölfen H, Fratzl P (2012) Self-assembly of amorphous calcium carbonate microlens arrays. Nat Commun 3:75Google Scholar
- Döderlein L (1898) Ueber “Krystallkörper” bei Seesternen. Denkschr Med Nat Ges Jena 8:491–494Google Scholar
- Dubois P, Hayt S (1990) Ultrastructure des ossicules d’échinodermes à stéréome non perforé. In: De Ridder C, Dubois P, Lahaye M-C, Jangoux M (eds) Echinoderm research. A.A. Balkema Press, Rotterdam, pp 217–223Google Scholar
- Mah CL (2005) A phylogeny of Iconaster and Glyphodiscus (Goniasteridae; Valvatida; Asteroidea) with descriptions of four new species. Zoosystema 27:131–167Google Scholar
- Ruppert EE, Barnes RD (1994) Invertebrate zoology, 6th edn. Saunders College Publishing, Harcourt Brace and Co., Orlando, p 937Google Scholar
- Yoshida M (1966) Photosensitivity. In: Boolootian RA (ed) Physiology of Echinodermata. Wiley Interscience, New York, pp 435–464Google Scholar