European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 170, Issue 4, pp 511–517 | Cite as

Performance characteristics of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for detection of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in children

  • Kristina Keitel
  • Noémie Wagner
  • Laurence Lacroix
  • Sergio Manzano
  • Alain GervaixEmail author
Original Paper


Rapid tests for diagnosis of influenza are valuable assets in the management of influenza in pediatric patients. However, test performance fluctuates with virus subtypes. We assessed the test characteristics of Influenzatop®, a rapid immunochromatographic influenza A and B test, in detecting pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in children up to 18 years of age, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as the gold standard. Three hundred and one pediatric outpatients with influenza-like illness were included into the study. Overall sensitivity of Influenzatop® was 64% (95% confidence interval (CI) 56–71%) but increased to 92% (95% CI, 80–97%) when performed between 24 and 48 h after onset of symptoms. Positive Influenzatop® results among RT-PCR-positive patients were associated with higher viral load. No significant variation in test performance could be detected when analyzed by age and high versus low prevalence period. Overall test specificity was 99% (95% CI, 95–100%); positive and negative predictive values were 98% (95% CI, 93–99%) and 70% (95% CI, 63–76%), respectively. Conclusion: Influenzatop® rapid influenza test is a sound tool in the diagnosis of H1N1 in pediatric patients when employed 24–48 h after onset of symptoms.


Child H1N1 Influenza Rapid test 



We thank Drs. Denis Aladjem, Virginie Chaves-Vischer, Pierre-Alex Crisinel, Cristina Delco, Corinne DeMoerlosse, Virginie Desmangles, Marie-Noelle Desthieux, Hakan Erbuke, Catherine Greder, Daniel Halperin, Christophe Hegi, Santosham Itty, Laurent Kaiser, Claire Leresche, Purificacion Mendez, Antoinette Mossaz-Moser, Jean Taguebue, Yves Thomas, and Samuel Zamora for their help in patient recruitment, collection of specimens, and data entry.

Conflict of interest

Influenzatop® tests were supplied free of charge from ALL.DIAG, Strasbourg, France. Authors have no other affiliations or financial involvement in any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials of the research discussed in the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristina Keitel
    • 1
  • Noémie Wagner
    • 1
  • Laurence Lacroix
    • 1
  • Sergio Manzano
    • 1
  • Alain Gervaix
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.University Children’s Hospital GenevaGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Service d’Accueil et d’Urgences Pédiatriques, Département de l’Enfant et de l’AdolescentHôpitaux Universitaires de GenèveGeneva 14Switzerland

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