Introduction

During the last decades, the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus, Thomas 1908) has emerged as an important animal model in neuroscience. It is a versatile and advantageous laboratory animal because of its robustness, its ease of handling and its reliable breeding under laboratory conditions.

Virtually all sensory systems, especially the auditory system, are being intensively studied in gerbils, involving a wide range of neuroanatomical and neurophysiological approaches. Topics include development and plasticity as well as effects of aging. Research in the motor system and investigations of behavioral mechanisms, learning and memory and of transmitter systems use gerbils as model organism as well. Due to a peculiarity of the cerebral arteries (circle of Willis) in Mongolian gerbils, cerebral infarction can be induced in a controllable way and has made it a widely used model for cerebral ischemia. It is also a model animal for inherited epilepsy, hippocampal seizure and pathogenesis of CNS infections.

Despite a large body of literature related to the investigation of the gerbil brain, the availability of brain atlases published for this animal species is limited. To date, there are two stereotaxic atlases of the gerbil’s brain. The ‘Stereotaxic Atlas of the Mongolian Gerbil Brain’ (Loskota et al. 1974) includes photographic montages of corresponding hemispheres of adjacent sections stained for myelinated fibers (Weil) and cell bodies (Nissl). Brain structures are outlined and labeled separately, while the neocortex is represented without subdivisions. The heavy shrinkage of the brain caused by the celloidin embedding technique was not corrected in the stereotaxic coordinates.

The brains used for the ‘Stereotaxic Atlas of the Gerbil Brain’ by Thiessen and Yahr (1977) were frozen and cut in a cryostat, which causes only little shrinkage and thus more reliably reproduces stereotaxic coordinates. This atlas incorporates the earlier ‘Stereotaxic Atlas of the Hypothalamus’ by Thiessen and Goar (1970). The atlas presents only schematic outlines of structures and does not provide illustrative material of the underlying Nissl-stained histological sections. In addition, the sectioning plane deviates from the conventional frontal plane in rodents perpendicular to the axis of the brain stem in both atlases.

Thus, the need for a new stereotaxic atlas of the gerbil brain that combines high-quality histological material to identify brain structures with reliable stereotaxic coordinates is evident. Brain sections are inevitably subject to distortions during tissue fixation and subsequent histological procedures (embedding, sectioning, staining and section mounting). Here, we improved the accuracy of the stereotaxic coordinate system substantially by comparing and matching the series of histological sections to in vivo brain images of the gerbil obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, X-ray computerized tomography (CT) yielded the outlines of the skull corresponding to the MR images, which helped to establish the relationship between coordinates of brain structures and skull coordinates. This is essential for any stereotaxic procedure using landmarks on the skull to reliably target brain structures for recording, imaging, tracer or virus applications. The atlas can also be used effectively as a common reference base to collect and compare positional data from any kind of research in the gerbil brain.

Methods

Animals

Twenty-one young adult male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) at the age of 4 months and weighing between 80 and 100 g were used for this study. Out of them, brains of seven animals were processed for cyto- and myeloarchitectonic features. Six other brains were additionally processed for chemo- and immunoarchitecture to support identification of anatomical structures. This material is not included in the atlas and will be published separately. Overall 10 CT scans of skulls and a total of 13 MR brain scans were performed in various combinations.

All experiments were in agreement with the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (2011) and the guidelines of the European Communities Council Directive (86/609/EEC) and approved by the animal care committee of Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany.

CT imaging

Animals were scanned under isoflurane anesthesia (1.0–1.5 % in 2:1 O2:N2O volume ratio) with the CT functionality of a NanoSPECT/CT scanner (Mediso Ltd., Budapest, Hungary). CT scans were made at 45 kVp, 1.77 μA, with 180 projections, 500 ms per projection and 96 μm pixel size. Images were reconstructed with the InVivoScope (vs.1.43) at isotropic voxel sizes of 100 μm and analyzed with the DICOM viewers Osirix (Pixmeo SARL, Bernex, Switzerland, v.5.1.7 64-bit) and the open source program AMIDE: A Medical Imaging Data Examiner (amide.exe 1.0.4, ©Andreas Loening, http://amide.sourceforge.net/; GNU GPL).

MR imaging

Animals were anesthetized with isoflurane (1.0–1.5 % in 1:1 O2:N2 volume ratio) and fixed with bite bars in a head-holder to reduce motion artifacts. MR scans were performed on a Bruker Biospec 47/20 scanner (Bruker Biospin GmbH, Rheinstetten, Germany) at 4.7 T (free bore of 20 cm) equipped with a BGA 09 (400 mT/m) gradient system. A 35 mm Litzcage small animal imaging system (DotyScientific Inc., Colombus, SC, USA) was used for radio frequency (RF) excitation and signal reception. Two days before MRI measurements, animals were injected subcutaneously with an aqueous solution containing 1 μmol/g MnCl2 (manganese enhanced MRI: ME-MRI). A data set of T1-weighted images was obtained using a 3D MDEFT (modified driven equilibrium Fourier transform) pulse sequence with the following parameters: repetition time 13.6 ms; echo time 4.3 ms; flip angle 20°; field of view 30 × 30 mm2; matrix 256 × 256 (yielding a nominal in plane resolution of 117 × 117 µm2); standard frontal orientation; slice thickness 350 µm; 20 averages. Images were reconstructed using Bruker ParaVision 4.0 (Bruker Biospin GmbH, Rheinstetten, Germany) and exported as raw images as well as in DICOM format. The open source program AMIDE (amide.exe 1.0.4, ©Andreas Loening, http://amide.sourceforge.net/) was used to align CT and MR scans and to extract images shown in the atlas.

Histology

Animals were anesthetized with a lethal dose of ketamine (40 mg/100 g body weight, i.p.) and xylazine (2 mg/100 g body weight, i.p.). When a deep anesthetic state marked by a complete loss of the flexor reflex at all limbs was reached, animals were perfused transcardially with 20 mL of phosphate buffered saline (0.1 M PBS, pH 7.4) supplemented with 0.1 % heparin followed by 200 mL of 4 % PFA (in 0.05 M PBS, pH 7.4). The brains were postfixed in the skull with 4 % PFA (in 0.05 M PBS, pH 7.4) at 4 °C for at least 7 days before removal to best preserve the brain shape.

Brains were cryo-protected in 22.5 % sucrose in PBS (0.05 M, pH 7.4) overnight and cut in a cryostat (LEICA CM 3050S) into four series of 40 µm thick frontal sections. The sections were directly mounted on gelatine-coated slides and dried overnight. Alternating section series were stained on-slide either for cells (Nissl) or for myelin (Gallyas 1979). The brains additionally processed for chemo- and immunoarchitecture were stained for cytochrome oxidase, acetylcholine-esterase (AChE), NADPH-diaphorase, calcium-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin) and neurofilament protein (SMI-32) in various combinations. Sections were imaged with a virtual slide microscope (VS120 S1, Olympus BX61VST, Olympus-Deutschland, Hamburg, Germany) at 10× magnification using the proprietary software dotSlide® (Olympus).

Atlas coordinate system

The coordinate system of the brain atlas is based on the conventional definition of anatomical sectioning planes in rodents. Frontal sections are perpendicular to the brainstem axis, which in the Mongolian gerbil is also parallel to the plane defined by the most dorsal points of cerebrum and cerebellum (Fig. 1). This plane is therefore chosen as origin for the dorsoventral dimension with negative values in ventral direction. The lateral dimension is zeroed to the midsagittal plane with negative values towards the right and positive values towards the left side. The anterior to posterior coordinates of the atlas are given for different origins (bregma, lambda, interaural line and occipital crest as skull landmarks) and are valid for the skull in standard atlas orientation.

Fig. 1
figure 1

View of fixed gerbil brain positioned for embedding. In the lower part of the figure, the brain is shown in the acrylic glass box used for embedding (rectangular block volume indicated by fine dotted lines). The brain is positioned on three pins (one is hidden by the left front pin) protruding from the base so that the plane defined by the most dorsal elevation of cerebrum and cerebellum (cc) as well as the brainstem axis (bs) are aligned parallel to the base. The anterior and posterior surfaces of the embedding block define the frontal sectioning plane (sp) perpendicular to cc and bs. A pin protruding from a bracket over the side walls of the box (only partly shown) prevents the brain from being washed off when the embedding medium is poured into the box

The frontal sectioning plane was implemented by a standardized embedding procedure using an acrylic glass box (Fig. 1). Each brain was oriented within the box so that the brainstem axis (Fig. 1 bs) was parallel to the base of the box and the midsagittal plane lined up with the long axis of the box. Note that in this orientation the plane through the highest point of cerebellum and cerebrum (Fig. 1 cc) is parallel to the base of the box and can therefore also be used to align the brain. The brain was stabilized in this orientation by adjustable supporting needles protruding from the bottom and from a bracket on top of the box. The volume around the brain was filled with embedding medium, namely a freshly prepared mixture of gelatin–albumin–glutaraldehyde. After 2–3 min, this mixture had hardened and the block was taken out of the box. Subsequently, the block was shock frozen in dry ice and mounted with its hind surface on the cutting platform of the cryostat. Due to the prior orientation within the box, the sectioning plane was now perpendicular to the long axis of the block and therefore also perpendicular to the brainstem axis and the horizontal plane through the highest cerebellar and cerebral points.

Stereotaxic reference system

In rats and mice, the connecting line through lambda and bregma coincides with that through lambda and occipital crest and is used as a horizontal guideline to align the in vivo brain in the classical planes (Paxinos and Watson 2007; Paxinos and Franklin 2001). In the Mongolian gerbil, the line linking lambda and bregma deviates from that linking lambda and occipital crest (Fig. 2, lower panel) and should, therefore, not be used as horizontal guideline to position the gerbil skull and brain in the atlas coordinate system. A horizontal adjustment of the skull along the line between lambda and occipital crest (Fig. 2, horizontal solid line) results in the best approximation to the atlas orientation (Fig. 2, dotted line) and is recommended as standard orientation.

Fig. 2
figure 2

Atlas coordinate system and stereotaxic reference system. Upper panel landmarks bregma, lambda and occipital crest (encircled) on the skull of a Mongolian gerbil in a top view. They are defined by the intersection of lines (dotted lines) approximating the course of the bone sutures. Lower panel montage of CT skull image and MR brain image at a parasagittal distance of 1 mm in standard orientation of the atlas. The solid line corresponds to the horizontal plane through lambda and occipital crest, which is parallel to the plane through the highest points of cerebrum and cerebellum (dotted line)

Selection of atlas series

The atlas series of histological sections was selected according to the following criteria:

  • the entire series, alternately stained for cell bodies (Nissl) and myelin (Gallyas), had to show good staining quality and tissue preservation

  • the atlas series had to match the MR scan of an average-sized brain, and relative distances of indicative structures of the brain had to show congruency with the distances in the available MR scans.

The following structures that could clearly be determined both in histological sections and in MR slices were used as ‘indicative structures’ (Fig. 3): the rostral beginning of neocortex (1), the crossing of the anterior commissure (2), the distinct appearance of the medial habenular nucleus (3), the end of the superior colliculus concurrent with the middle of the inferior colliculus (4) and the end of the cerebellum (5). To judge brain size and to probe the consistency of individual histology series, the distances between indicative brain structures and the rostral pole of neocortex were evaluated and compared to the corresponding median distances in 13 MR scans (Fig. 3; Table 1).

Fig. 3
figure 3

Indicative structures in histological and MRI brain series. The following structures were used (from rostral to caudal): beginning of neocortex (1), midline crossing of anterior commissure (2), distinct appearance of medial habenular nucleus (3), end of the superior colliculus (concurrent with the middle of the inferior colliculus) and (4) end of the cerebellum (5). Montages combine CT and MR scans and half of the corresponding Nissl-stained section. The anterior–posterior location of the corresponding atlas plates is indicated by dotted lines and respective numbers in the central brain image

Table 1 Distances between indicative structures in the atlas series

The MR series that corresponded best to the median values was chosen as ‘ATLAS MRI’. The same distance measurements were performed in seven high-quality histological series. The series that corresponded best to the atlas MRI median values was designated as ‘ATLAS histology series’. Table 1 shows the conformance of the atlas histology series with the atlas MR scan and the median values of MRI series.

CT scans of the skull provide the interface to the brain coordinate system in vivo. Therefore, the available CT scans were overlaid to the atlas MRI. The CT scan matching best was chosen as ‘ATLAS CT’ series. For all CT scans the distances between bregma and the skull landmarks lambda, interaural line and occipital crest were calculated (Table 2). The comparison across animals corresponded well to the values of the atlas CT scan.

Table 2 Distances between landmarks on the gerbil skull

Preparation of images and plates

For each 350 µm thick slice of the atlas MR series a corresponding Nissl-stained section of the atlas series was selected and grouped with the adjacent myelin-stained section to represent one of the 62 rostro-caudal levels (Fig. 4). Usually, every forth Nissl-stained section fitted best to the subsequent MR slice, which corresponded to a distance of 320 µm between the matching Nissl-stained sections. The 30 µm difference between the MR slices and the Nissl-stained sections can be explained by the shrinkage of the atlas brain due to histological processing, mainly fixation. This shrinkage is in the range of 8–10 % generally observed for cryo-protected frozen-cut brains with PFA fixation (4 %). Contrast and brightness of the images of the sections were corrected with Photoshop (CS6, Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA, USA), and distortions due to histological processing were compensated by slightly transforming the sections to optimize the congruency of anatomical structures between histological sections and MR images. Images were arranged in the atlas coordinate frame using CorelDraw graphics suite version X6 or X7 (Corel Corporation, Ottawa, ON, Canada). MR and CT images were adjusted according to the definition of the atlas coordinate system in 62 plates and reflect the in vivo orientation of the brain and skull. The images of cell- and myelin-stained sections were inserted in line with the corresponding MR image. The anterior–posterior coordinates of the plates are indicated relative to bregma, lambda, interaural line and the occipital crest. All outlines were drawn in CorelDraw on the base of the Nissl-stained section of each atlas plate. The structural boundaries seen in the corresponding myelin-stained section generally correlate well with these outlines.

Anatomical structures, nomenclature and abbreviations

Anatomical structures were identified on the basis of cyto- and myeloarchitecture and their relative location. For comparison we mainly used the published atlases of the Mongolian gerbil brain (Loskota et al. 1974; Thiessen and Yahr 1977), the atlases and books for rat brain of Paxinos, Swanson and Zilles (Paxinos 1995, 2004; Paxinos and Watson 2007; Paxinos et al. 2009; Swanson 1992, 2004; Zilles 1985) and for mouse brain (Paxinos and Franklin 2001; Dong 2008; Franklin and Paxinos 2008; Watson and Paxinos 2010; Watson et al. 2012). Brain series stained for chemoarchitectonic markers were consulted to support the structural identification. Unfortunately, no unified neuroanatomical nomenclature exists to date (Swanson 2015). Therefore, we decided to use the widely accepted Paxinos nomenclature and abbreviations for naming structures. Auditory midbrain and brainstem nuclei for which gerbil specific terms were already established (Budinger et al. 2000, 2013; Mylius et al. 2013; Radtke-Schuller et al. 2015) were labeled according to these studies.

Practical hints

Sectioning in atlas coordinates: It is also possible to section the brain in the standard atlas plane without the above described embedding procedure. In this case, the brain is positioned upside down on a flat surface so that it is seated with the cerebellum and cerebrum on the base. Then, part of the brain is cut off perpendicular to the base to create a surface for mounting the brain’s portion of interest on the cryostat platform. By subsequent sectioning of the brain parallel to this cutting surface the resulting sections correspond best to the frontal plane of the atlas.

Stereotaxic procedure: In addition to traditional landmarks and reference points such as lambda, bregma and interaural line, we recommend the occipital crest (Fig. 2) for anterior–posterior reference and adjustment of the skull in vivo. The traditional landmarks are often difficult to discern, show individual variations and cannot be accessed in some experimental approaches (e.g., interaural coordinates in auditory research where ear bars are avoided). In general, a higher precision of in vivo positioning of the skull can be achieved by using the specific pattern of skull profiles instead of single reference points [for profile oriented stereotaxic procedure see Schuller et al. (1986)].

Index of structures

The structures are listed in alphabetical order followed by their abbreviation and the plate number(s) of occurrence

1st cerebellar lobule (lingula) 1Cb 46–48
2nd cerebellar lobule 2Cb 43–46
3rd cerebellar lobule 3Cb 43–49
3rd ventricle 3V 23–34
4th cerebellar lobule 4Cb 41–49
4th ventricle 4V 43–54
5th cerebellar lobule 5Cb 42–50
6th cerebellar lobule 6Cb 46–54
7th cerebellar lobule 7Cb 51–56
8th cerebellar lobule 8Cb 51–58
9th cerebellar lobule 9Cb 50–51
9th cerebellar lobule, a 9aCb 52–59
9th cerebellar lobule, b 9bCb 52–59
9th cerebellar lobule, c 9cCb 52–59
10th cerebellar lobule (nodule) 10Cb 50–55
A
A11 dopamine cells A11 30–31
A13 dopamine cells A13 28–29
A5 noradrenaline cells A5 44–47
abducens nerve 6n 46–47
abducens nucleus 6N 47
accessory nerve nucleus 11N 60–62
accessory neurosecretory nuclei ANS 27–28
accumbens nucleus, core AcbC 16–21
accumbens nucleus, shell AcbSh 16–21
agranular insular cortex AI 11–27
alveus of the hippocampus alv 27–38
ambiguus nucleus, compact part AmbC 52
ambiguus nucleus, loose part AmbL 55
ambiguus nucleus, subcompact part AmbSC 53–54
amygdalohippocampal area AHi 29–33
amygdaloid fissure af 31–32
amygdaloid intramedullary gray IMG 27–28
amygdalopiriform transition area APir 30–35
amygdalostriatal transition area ASt 26–30
angular thalamic nucleus AngT 28–28
ansoparamedian fissure apmf 52–55
anterior amygdaloid area AA 24–26
anterior auditory field AAF 28–29
anterior cerebral artery acer 23
anterior commissure, anterior part aca 11–24
anterior commissure, intrabulbar part aci 1–10
anterior commissure, posterior part acp 23–25
anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus ACo 24–28
anterior hypothalamic area, anterior part AHA 25–26
anterior hypothalamic area, central part AHC 27–28
anterior hypothalamic area, posterior part AHP 28
anterior olfactory nucleus, dorsal part AOD 8–12
anterior olfactory nucleus, external part AOE 6–10
anterior olfactory nucleus, lateral part AOL 6–12
anterior olfactory nucleus, medial part AOM 9–13
anterior olfactory nucleus, posterior part AOP 14–16
anterior olfactory nucleus, ventral part AOV 8–11
anterior olfactory nucleus, ventroposterior part AOVP 11–15
anterior pretectal nucleus APT 35
anterior pretectal nucleus, dorsal part APTD 31–34
anterior pretectal nucleus, ventral part APTV 32–34
anterior tegmental nucleus ATg 40–41
anterodorsal thalamic nucleus AD 26–27
anterolateral periolivary nucleus ALPO 44
anteromedial thalamic nucleus AM 25–28
anteromedial thalamic nucleus, ventral part AMV 27
anterovent thalamic nucleus, dorsomedial part AVDM 26–28
anteroventral periventricular nucleus AVPe 23
anteroventral thalamic nucleus AV 25
anteroventral thalamic nucleus, ventrolateral part AVVL 26–27
aqueduct Aq 35–42
arcuate hypothalamic nucleus Arc 27–33
area postrema AP 55–56
ascending fibers of the facial nerve asc7 48
B
Barrington’s nucleus Bar 43–44
basal nucleus (Meynert) B 24–29
basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, anterior part BLA 25–29
basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, posterior part BLP 27–32
basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, ventral part BLV 25–27
basomedial amygdaloid nucleus, anterior part BMA 25–27
basomedial amygdaloid nucleus, posterior part BMP 28–31
bed nucleus of stria terminalis, fusiform part Fu 23
bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract BAOT 27
bed nucleus of the anterior commissure BAC 24
bed nucleus of the stria terminalis ST 22
bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, intraamygdaloid division STIA 28–29
bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral division, intermediate part STLI 24
bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral division, posterior part STLP 23–24
bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral division, ventral part STLV 23–24
bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial division, anterior part STMA 23–24
bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial division, posterior part STMP 25–26
bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial division, ventral part STMV 23–24
blood vessel BV 21
Bötzinger complex Bo 52
brachium of the inferior colliculus bic 36–40
brachium of the superior colliculus bsc 33–35
C
caudal linear nucleus of the raphe CLi 37–39
caudal periolivary nucleus CPO 48
caudate putamen (striatum) CPu 17–30
caudomedial entothinal cortex CEnt 35–41
caudoventrolateral reticular nucleus CVL 52–53
cell bridges of the ventral striatum CB 20–22
central amygdaloid nucleus, capsular part CeC 26–29
central amygdaloid nucleus, lateral division CeL 27–28
central amygdaloid nucleus, medial division CeM 25–29
central canal CC 55–62
central cervical nucleus of the spinal cord CeCv 56–62
central gray CG 43
central gray of the pons CGPn 45
central gray, alpha part CGA 44–46
central gray, beta part CGB 44–45
central gray, gamma part CGG 46
central gray, nucleus O CGO 44–45
central medial thalamic nucleus CM 26–31
central nucleus of the inferior colliculus CIC 39–42
centrolateral thalamic nucleus CL 28–31
cerebellar white matter cbw 43–57
cerebral peduncle cp 28–39
choroid plexus chp 24–54
cingulate cortex, area 1 Cg1 10–27
cingulate cortex, area 2 Cg2 19–27
cingulum cg 17–34
claustrum Cl 12–27
commissural stria terminalis cst 26–27
commissure of the inferior colliculus cic 42–43
commissure of the lateral lemniscus cll 41–42
commissure of the superior colliculus csc 34–36
copula of the pyramis Cop 49–57
corpus callosum cc 20–30
cortex-amygdala transition zone CxA 24–26
crus 1 of the ansiform lobule Crus1 43–54
crus 2 of the ansiform lobule Crus2 49–55
cuneate fasciculus cu 53–62
cuneate nucleus Cu 52–62
cuneate nucleus, rotundus part CuR 55–56
cuneiform nucleus CnF 41–43
D
decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle xscp 39–41
decussation of the trapezoid body tzx 44–47
deep cerebral white matter dcw 29–39
deep gray layer of the superior colliculus DpG 33–41
deep white layer of the superior colliculus DpWh 34–41
dentate gyrus DG 30
dorsal acoustic stria das 49–50
dorsal cochlear nucleus, deep core DCDp 49–50
dorsal cochlear nucleus, fusiform layer DCFu 48–50
dorsal cochlear nucleus, molecular layer DCMo 48–50
dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus DCIC 40–43
dorsal corticospinal tract dcs 60–62
dorsal endopiriform nucleus DEn 12–32
dorsal fornix df 26–27
dorsal hippocampal commissure dhc 28–38
dorsal hypothalamic area DA 29–30
dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus DLG 29–33
dorsal lateral olfactory tract dlo 5–12
dorsal motor nucleus of vagus 10N 53–58
dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus DNLL 41–42
dorsal paragigantocellular nucleus DPGi 48–51
dorsal part of claustrum DCl 16–26
dorsal peduncular cortex DP 12–18
dorsal periolivary nucleus DPO 45–47
dorsal raphe nucleus DR 37–38
dorsal raphe nucleus, caudal part DRC 43–44
dorsal raphe nucleus, dorsal part DRD 39–42
dorsal raphe nucleus, lateral part DRL 39–41
dorsal raphe nucleus, ventral part DRV 39–42
dorsal spinocerebellar tract dsc 52–62
dorsal subiculum DS 33–36
dorsal tegmental decussation dtgx 36–37
dorsal tegmental nucleus DTg 44
dorsal tegmental nucleus, central part DTgC 43
dorsal tegmental nucleus, pericentral part DTgP 43
dorsal tenia tecta DTT 11–18
dorsal transition zone Dtr 12–15
dorsolateral orbital cortex DLO 9–12
dorsolateral periaqueductal gray DLPAG 36–42
dorsolateral periolivary nucleus DLPO 44–47
dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus DM 29–32
dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, compact part DMC 31
dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsal part DMD 31
dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, ventral part DMV 31
dorsomedial nucleus of the inferior colliculus DMIC 41–43
dorsomedial periaqueductal gray DMPAG 35–42
dorsomedial spinal trigeminal nucleus DMSp5 48–54
dorsomedial tegmental area DMTg 43–45
dysgranular insular cortex DI 13–27
E
ectorhinal cortex Ect 28–42
Edinger–Westphal nucleus EW 36–38
entopeduncular nucleus EP 27–28
entorhinal cortex Ent 42
ependyma and subependymal layer E 1–23
ethmoid thalamic nucleus Eth 32
external capsule ec 19–30
external cortex of the inferior colliculus ECIC 38–44
external cuneate nucleus ECu 52–56
external medullary lamina eml 28–30
external plexiform layer of the accessory olfactory bulb EPlA 5–9
external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb EPl 1–9
F
F cell group of the vestibular complex FVe 52
facial nerve 7n 45–47
facial nucleus, dorsal intermediate subnucleus 7DI 48–50
facial nucleus, dorsolateral subnucleus 7DL 48–50
facial nucleus, dorsomedial subnucleus 7DM 48–50
facial nucleus, lateral subnucleus 7L 49–51
facial nucleus, ventral intermediate subnucleus 7VI 48–50
facial nucleus, ventromedial subnucleus 7VM 48–50
fasciculus retroflexus fr 27–36
fasciola cinereum FC 29–33
field CA1 of the hippocampus CA1 28–36
field CA2 of the hippocampus CA2 28–32
field CA3 of the hippocampus CA3 27–34
fimbria of the hippocampus fi 22–30
flocculus Fl 43–48
forceps major of the corpus callosum fmj 34–39
forceps minor of the corpus callosum fmi 13–18
fornix f 23–32
frontal association cortex FrA 7–9
frontal cortex, area 3 Fr3 11–17
G
gelatinous layer of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus Ge5 57–62
genu of the corpus callosum gcc 19
genu of the facial nerve g7 46–48
gigantocellular reticular nucleus Gi 47–54
gigantocellular reticular nucleus, alpha part GiA 48–51
gigantocellular reticular nucleus, ventral part GiV 51–52
globular cell area, ventral cochlear nucleus Gca 46–49
globus pallidus GP 24–29
glomerular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb GlA 5–10
glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb Gl 1–11
glossopharyngeal nerve nucleus 9N 62
gracile fasciculus gr 54–62
gracile nucleus Gr 54–62
granular cell layer of the olfactory bulb GrO 1–10
granular insular cortex GI 13–27
granular layer of the dentate gyrus GrDG 27–36
granule cell layer of cochlear nuclei GrC 43–50
granule cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb GrA 3–10
H
habenular commissure hbc 31–32
hippocampal fissure hif 30–34
hypoglossal nerve 12n 53–58
hypoglossal nucleus 12N 51–58
hypoglossal nucleus, geniohyoid part 12GH 57–58
I
indusium griseum IG 18–33
inferior cerebellar peduncle (restiform body) icp 46–53
inferior olive, beta subnucleus IOBe 56–58
inferior olive, cap of Kooy of the medial nucleus IOK 56–57
inferior olive, dorsal nucleus IOD 52–56
inferior olive, dorsomedial cell group IODM 52–55
inferior olive, medial nucleus IOM 52–55
inferior olive, principal nucleus IOPr 52–56
inferior olive, subnucleus A of medial nucleus IOA 57–58
inferior olive, subnucleus B of medial nucleus IOB 56–58
inferior olive, subnucleus C of medial nucleus IOC 56–58
infralimbic cortex IL 14–18
interanterodorsal thalamic nucleus IAD 26–27
interanteromedial thalamic nucleus IAM 27
intercalated amygdaloid nucleus, main part IM 26
intercalated nuclei of the amygdala I 23–29
intercrural fissure icf 49–54
interfascicular nucleus IF 35–38
intermediate endopiriform nucleus IEn 12–24
intermediate gray layer of the superior colliculus InG 33–41
intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus INLL 40–42
intermediate reticular nucleus IRt 46–62
intermediate white layer of the superior colliculus InWh 33–41
intermediodorsal thalamic nucleus IMD 28–30
intermedioventral thalamic commissure imvc 29–30
internal capsule ic 23–30
internal medullary lamina iml 26
internal plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb IPl 1–10
interpeduncular fossa IPF 36
interpeduncular nucleus, caudal subnucleus IPC 37–40
interpeduncular nucleus, dorsal subnucleus IPD 38
interpeduncular nucleus, intermediate subnucleus IPI 38–39
interpeduncular nucleus, lateral subnucleus IPL 37–39
interpeduncular nucleus, rostral subnucleus IPR 37–38
interposed cerebellar nucleus, anterior part IntA 47–49
interposed cerebellar nucleus, dorsolateral hump IntDL 47–50
interposed cerebellar nucleus, dorsomedial crest IntDM 48–50
interposed cerebellar nucleus, posterior part IntP 49–50
interposed cerebellar nucleus, posterior parvicellular part IntPPC 49–50
interstitial nucleus of Cajal InC 33–38
interstitial nucleus of the medulla IB 57–62
interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure IPAC 22–25
interventricular foramen IVF 25–
islands of Calleja ICj 16–22
islands of Calleja, major island ICjM 20–21
isthmic reticular formation isRt 39–42
K
Kölliker–Fuse nucleus KF 43–44
L
lacunosum moleculare layer of the hippocampus LMol 29–36
lambdoid septal zone Ld 19–21
lateral accumbens shell LAcbSh 19–21
lateral amygdaloid nucleus La 26–31
lateral amygdaloid nucleus, dorsal part LaD 27–30
lateral amygdaloid nucleus, ventral part LaV 27–30
lateral (dentate) cerebellar nucleus Lat 46–49
lateral cerebellar nucleus, parvicellular part LatPC 46–48
lateral entorhinal cortex LEnt 29–41
lateral habenular nucleus LHb 28–31
lateral habenular nucleus, lateral part LHbL 29–30
lateral habenular nucleus, medial part LHbM 29–30
lateral lemniscus ll 39–43
lateral mammillary nucleus LM 33–35
lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body LNTB 44–47
lateral olfactory tract lo 5–25
lateral orbital cortex LO 8–16
lateral parabrachial nucleus LPB 45
lateral parabrachial nucleus, central part LPBC 43–44
lateral parabrachial nucleus, crescent part LPBCr 44
lateral parabrachial nucleus, internal part LPBI 43–45
lateral paragigantocellular nucleus LPGi 51–53
lateral paragigantocellular nucleus, alpha part LPGiA 48–50
lateral paragigantocellular nucleus, external part LPGiE 48–50
lateral parietal association cortex LPtA 28–30
lateral periaqueductal gray LPAG 35–42
lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, laterocaudal part LPLC 32–33
lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, laterorostral part LPLR 29–31
lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, mediocaudal part LPMC 32–34
lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, mediorostral part LPMR 29–32
lateral preoptic area LPO 22–25
lateral recess of the 4th ventricle LR4V 45–51
lateral reticular nucleus LRt 54–59
lateral reticular nucleus, parvicellular part LRtPC 56–58
lateral reticular nucleus, subtrigeminal part LRtS5 55–56
lateral septal nucleus, dorsal part LSD 19–25
lateral septal nucleus, intermediate part LSI 18–23
lateral septal nucleus, ventral part LSV 19–23
lateral stripe of the striatum LSS 21–23
lateral superior olive LSO 45–47
lateral terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract LT 33
lateral ventricle LV 17–32
lateral vestibular nucleus LVe 47–49
lateroanterior hypothalamic nucleus LA 25–26
laterodorsal tegmental nucleus LDTg 42–44
laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, ventral part LDTgV 43
laterodorsal thalamic nucleus, dorsomedial part LDDM 27–28
laterodorsal thalamic nucleus, ventrolateral part LDVL 27–29
lateroventral periolivary nucleus LVPO 44–47
layer 1 of cortex 1 11–33
layer 2 of cortex 2 11–33
layer 3 of cortex 3 11–33
layer 4 of cortex 4 14–16
lemina terminalis LTer 24
linear nucleus of the medulla Li 51–53
lithoid nucleus Lth 33
locus coeruleus LC 44–45
longitudinal fasciculus of the pons lfp 40–43
M
magnocellular nucleus of the lateral hypothalamus MCLH 29
magnocellular nucleus of the posterior commissure MCPC 33–34
magnocellular preoptic nucleus MCPO 23–25
mammillary peduncle mp 35–36
mammillary recess of the 3rd ventricle MRe 34
mammillotegmental tract mtg 33
mammillothalamic tract mt 27–33
marginal zone of the medial geniculate MZMG 33–35
matrix region of the medulla Mx 50–59
medial (fastigial) cerebellar nucleus Med 47–50
medial accessory oculomotor nucleus MA3 34–35
medial amygdaloid nucleus, anterodorsal part MeAD 26–27
medial amygdaloid nucleus, anteroventral part MeAV 27
medial amygdaloid nucleus, posterodorsal part MePD 27–29
medial amygdaloid nucleus, posteroventral part MePV 28–29
medial cerebellar nucleus, dorsolateral protuberance MedDL 49–50
medial cerebellar nucleus, lateral part MedL 49–50
medial corticohypothalamic tract mch 25
medial entorhinal cortex MEnt 34–41
medial forebrain bundle mfb 19–32
medial geniculate nucleus, dorsal part MGD 33–36
medial geniculate nucleus, medial part MGM 33–36
medial geniculate nucleus, ventral part MGV 33–36
medial habenular nucleus MHb 27–31
medial lemniscus ml 28–54
medial lemniscal decussation mlx 56
medial longitudinal fasciculus mlf 37–62
medial mammillary nucleus, lateral part ML 34–36
medial mammillary nucleus, medial part MM 34–35
medial mammillary nucleus, median part MnM 34–
medial nucleus of the trapezoid body MNTB 43–47
medial orbital cortex MO 8–14
medial parabrachial nucleus MPB 43–45
medial parabrachial nucleus, external part MPBE 44
medial parietal association cortex MPtA 28–30
medial preoptic area MPA 22–25
medial preoptic nucleus MPO 24–25
medial pretectal nucleus MPT 32
medial septal nucleus MS 19–23
medial superior olive MSO 44–47
medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract MT 35
medial tuberal nucleus MTu 29–31
medial vestibular nucleus MVe 53
medial vestibular nucleus, magnocellular part MVeMC 46–52
medial vestibular nucleus, parvicellular part MVePC 46–52
median accessory nucleus of the medulla MnA 59–62
median eminence ME 30–32
median preoptic nucleus MnPO 22–24
median raphe nucleus MnR 39–43
mediodorsal thalamic nucleus MD 27
mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, central part MDC 28–30
mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, lateral part MDL 28–30
mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, medial part MDM 28–30
medioventral periolivary nucleus MVPO 44–47
medullary reticular nucleus, dorsal part MdD 55–62
medullary reticular nucleus, ventral part MdV 55–62
mesencehalic reticular formation mRt 36–38
mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus Me5 38–45
mesencephalic trigeminal tract me5 43–45
microcellular tegmental nucleus MiTg 38–39
middle cerebellar peduncle mcp 40–46
middle cerebral artery mcer 23
mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb MiA 5–9
mitral cell layer of the olfactory bulb Mi 1–10
molecular layer of the dentate gyrus MoDG 27–37
molecular layer of the subiculum MoS 37
motor root of the trigeminal nerve m5 43–45
motor trigeminal nucleus 5N 44–45
motor trigeminal nucleus, anterior digastric part 5ADi 45–46
motor trigeminal nucleus, tensor tympani part 5TT 43–44
N
navicular nucleus of the basal forebrain Nv 17–18
nigrostriatal bundle ns 27–33
nucleus of Darkschewitsch Dk 33–35
nucleus of origin of efferents of the vestibular nerve EVe 47
nucleus of Roller Ro 52–56
nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus BIC 36–37
nucleus of the central acoustic tract CAT 43–
nucleus of the fields of Forel F 32–34
nucleus of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band HDB 20–25
nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract LOT 25–26
nucleus of the optic tract OT 32–35
nucleus of the posterior commissure PCom 33–34
nucleus of the solitary tract Sol 49–50
nucleus of the solitary tract, commissural part SolC 55–62
nucleus of the solitary tract, medial part SolM 55–59
nucleus of the solitary tract, ventrolateral part SolVL 55–57
nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band VDB 19–21
nucleus X X 48–52
nucleus Y Y 48
O
obex Obex 57
octopus cell area, ventral cochlear nucleus Oca 47–49
oculomotor nerve 3n 36–37
oculomotor nucleus 3N 37–38
oculomotor nucleus, parvicellular part 3PC 36
olfactory nerve layer ON 1–8
olfactory tubercle Tu 16–23
olfactory ventricle (olfactory part of lateral ventricle) OV 1–16
olivary pretectal nucleus OPT 32–33
olivocerebellar tract oc 50–54
olivocochlear bundle ocb 46–47
optic chiasm och 21–25
optic nerve layer of the superior colliculus Op 33–40
optic tract opt 26–33
oriens layer of the hippocampus Or 27–36
oval paracentral thalamic nucleus OPC 29–31
P
p1 periaqueductal gray p1PAG 32–34
p1 reticular formation p1Rt 32–35
paraabducens nucleus Pa6 46–47
parabigeminal nucleus PBG 38–40
parabrachial pigmented nucleus of the ventral tegmental area PBP 33–37
paracentral thalamic nucleus PC 27–30
paracochlear glial substance PCGS 46
parafascicular thalamic nucleus PF 31–32
parafloccular sulcus pfs 44–50
paraflocculus PFl 43–50
parainterfascicular nucleus of the ventral tegmental area PIF 36–37
paralemniscal nucleus PL 40–42
paralemniscal nucleus, medial part MPL 41–42
paramedian lobule PM 49–56
paramedian raphe nucleus PMnR 39–42
paramedian sulcus pms 50–55
paranigral nucleus of the ventral tegmental area PN 36–37
parapyramidal nucleus PPy 49–50
pararubral nucleus PaR 35–38
parasolitary nucleus PSol 54–55
parastrial nucleus PS 23–24
parasubiculum PaS 35–42
parasubthalamic nucleus PSTh 32
paratenial thalamic nucleus PT 25–27
paraterete nucleus PTe 29–30
paratrigeminal nucleus Pa5 54–57
paratrochlear nucleus Pa4 40–41
paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, anterior parvicellular part PaAP 25–26
paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, medial magnocellular part PaMM 27–28
paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, medial parvicellular part PaMP 27
paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, posterior part PaPo 28
paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, ventral part PaV 27
paraventricular thalamic nucleus PV 27–28
paraventricular thalamic nucleus, anterior part PVA 25–26
paraventricular thalamic nucleus, posterior part PVP 29–31
paraxiphoid nucleus of thalamus PaXi 27–29
parietal cortex, posterior area PtP 28–31
parvicellular reticular nucleus PCRt 46–54
peduncular part of lateral hypothalamus PLH 26–33
pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus PTg 38–42
pericollicular tegmental area Pta 39–43
perifacial zone P7 48–51
perifornical nucleus PeF 29–30
perifornical part of lateral hypothalamus PeFLH 29–32
perilemniscal nucleus, ventral part PLV 41–43
peripeduncular nucleus PP 33–35
perirhinal cortex PRh 28–42
peritrigeminal zone P5 43–46
periventricular hypothalamic nucleus Pe 23–30
piriform cortex Pir 11–33
polymorph layer of the dentate gyrus PoDG 28–35
pontine nuclei Pn 39–42
pontine raphe nucleus PnR 43
pontine reticular nucleus, caudal part PnC 44–47
pontine reticular nucleus, oral part PnO 39–43
pontine reticular nucleus, ventral part PnV 45–47
posterior commissure pc 32–34
posterior hypothalamic area PHA 33
posterior hypothalamic area, dorsal part PHD 30–31
posterior hypothalamic nucleus PH 31–32
posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus PIL 33–35
posterior limitans thalamic nucleus PLi 33–35
posterior pretectal nucleus PPT 33–35
posterior superior fissure psf 43–54
posterior thalamic nuclear group Po 28–33
posterior thalamic nuclear group, triangular part PoT 33–35
posterodorsal raphe nucleus PDR 39–42
posterodorsal tegmental nucleus PDTg 45
posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus PLCo 27–29
posterolateral fissure plf 43–55
posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus PMCo 29–33
posteromedian thalamic nucleus PoMn 31
postsubiculum Post 35–40
pre-Edinger–Westphal nucleus PrEW 34–35
precentral fissure pcn 43–46
precommissural nucleus PrC 31–33
preculminate fissure pcuf 43–47
precuneiform area PrCnF 38–41
prelimbic cortex PrL 9–18
premammillary nucleus, dorsal part PMD 33
premammillary nucleus, ventral part PMV 32–33
prepositus nucleus Pr 47–53
prepyramidal fissure ppf 51–56
prerubral field PR 31–34
presubiculum PrS 35–38
primary auditory cortex Au1 28–33
primary auditory field A1 29–33
primary fissure prf 43–50
primary motor cortex M1 11–28
primary somatosensory cortex S1 24–30
primary somatosensory cortex, barrel field S1BF 20–28
primary somatosensory cortex, dysgranular zone S1DZ 16–28
primary somatosensory cortex, forelimb region S1FL 15–24
primary somatosensory cortex, hindlimb region S1HL 20–26
primary somatosensory cortex, jaw region S1J 13–20
primary somatosensory cortex, oral dysgranular zone S1DZO 18–19
primary somatosensory cortex, shoulder region S1Sh 25–26
primary somatosensory cortex, trunk region S1Tr 27–28
primary somatosensory cortex, upper lip region S1ULp 18–28
primary visual cortex V1 31–42
primary visual cortex, binocular area V1B 32–39
primary visual cortex, monocular area V1M 32–39
principal mammillary tract pm 33–34
principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, dorsomedial part Pr5DM 44–47
principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, ventrolateral part Pr5VL 43–47
pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus Py 27–36
pyramidal decussation pyx 57–62
pyramidal tract py 43–58
R
radiatum layer of the hippocampus Rad 28–36
raphe interpositus nucleus RIP 46–48
raphe magnus nucleus RMg 44–51
raphe obscurus nucleus ROb 50–58
raphe pallidus nucleus RPa 43–58
red nucleus, magnocellular part RMC 35–38
red nucleus, parvicellular part RPC 35–36
reticluostrial nucleus RtSt 26
reticular thalamic nucleus Rt 26–30
reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons RtTg 41–45
reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons, pericentral part RtTgP 41–42
retroambiguus nucleus RAmb 56–58
retrochiasmatic area RCh 27–28
retrochiasmatic area, lateral part RChL 27
retroethmoid nucleus REth 33
retrorubral field RRF 37–39
retrorubral nucleus RR 39–40
retrosplenial dysgranular cortex RSD 27–42
retrosplenial granular cortex RSG 40
retrosplenial granular cortex, a region RSGa 35–39
retrosplenial granular cortex, b region RSGb 32–39
retrosplenial granular cortex, c region RSGc 27–36
retrouniens area RRe 31
reuniens thalamic nucleus Re 26–30
rhabdoid nucleus Rbd 39
rhinal fissure rf 7–41
rhinal incisure ri 7–12
rhomboid thalamic nucleus Rh 27–30
rostral amygdalopiriform area RAPir 28–30
rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus RI 32–33
rostral linear nucleus of the raphe RLi 35–35
rostral periolivary nucleus RPO 44
rostral ventral respiratory group RVRG 53
rubrospinal tract rs 41–62
S
sagulum nucleus Sag 41–43
scaphoid thalamic nucleus Sc 32
secondary auditory cortex, dorsal area AuD 28–36
secondary auditory cortex, ventral area AuV 28–36
secondary fissure sf 53–58
secondary motor cortex M2 10–28
secondary somatosensory cortex S2 18–28
secondary visual cortex, lateral area V2L 31–41
secondary visual cortex, medial area V2M 31–40
sensory root of the trigeminal nerve s5 42–47
septofimbrial nucleus SFi 22–25
septohippocampal nucleus SHi 18–25
simple lobule Sim 43–49
simplex fissure simf 47–49
solitary nucleus, dorsolateral part SolDL 55–57
solitary nucleus, ventral part SolV 55–57
solitary tract sol 50–57
spherical cell area, ventral cochlear nucleus Sca 43–46
spinal trigeminal nucleus, caudal part Sp5C 55–62
spinal trigeminal nucleus, interpolar part Sp5I 49–56
spinal trigeminal nucleus, oral part Sp5O 48–51
spinal trigeminal tract sp5 48–62
spinal vestibular nucleus SpVe 48–53
splenium of the corpus callosum scc 31–33
stratum lucidum of the hippocampus SLu 28–33
stria medullaris of the thalamus sm 25–30
stria terminalis st 23–31
strial part of the preoptic area StA 23
subbrachial nucleus SubB 36–38
subcoeruleus nucleus, alpha part SubCA 44
subcoeruleus nucleus, dorsal part SubCD 43–45
subcoeruleus nucleus, ventral part SubCV 43–45
subcommissural organ SCO 32–34
subfornical organ SFO 25
subgeniculate nucleus SubG 31–32
subiculum, transition area STr 37–38
subincertal nucleus SubI 29–30
sublenticular extended amygdala EA 26
sublenticular extended amygdala, central part EAC 25
submedius thalamic nucleus Sub 30
submedius thalamic nucleus, dorsal part SubD 28–29
submedius thalamic nucleus, ventral part SubV 28–29
subparafascicular thalamic nucleus SPF 31
subparafascicular thalamic nucleus, parvicellular part SPFPC 31–32
subparaventricular zone of the hypothalamus SPa 27–28
subpeduncular tegmental nucleus SPTg 40–42
substantia innominata, basal part SIB 21–24
substantia nigra, compact part SNC 33–38
substantia nigra, reticular part SNR 33–38
subthalamic nucleus STh 30–32
superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus SuG 33–41
superior cerebellar peduncle scp 41–49
superior medullary velum SMV 45–47
superior periolivary nucleus SPN 44–47
superior thalamic radiation str 31–32
superior vestibular nucleus SuVe 46–47
suprachiasmatic nucleus SCh 25
suprachiasmatic nucleus, dorsolateral part SChDL 26
suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventromedial part SChVM 26
suprageniculate thalamic nucleus SG 33–36
supragenual nucleus SGe 46
supramammillary decussation sumx 34
supramammillary nucleus, lateral part SuML 33–34
supramammillary nucleus, medial part SuMM 33–34
supraoculomotor cap Su3C 36–36
supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray Su3 36–39
supraoptic decussation sox 26–32
supraoptic nucleus SO 23–27
supratrigeminal nucleus Su5 43–45
T
tectal gray TG 33–35
tectospinal tract ts 39–62
temporal association cortex TeA 37–39
terete hypothalamic nucleus Te 31
transverse fibers of the pons tfp 39
trapezoid body tz 43–49
triangular septal nucleus TS 24–25
trigeminal transition zone 5Tr 44–46
trigeminal-solitary transition zone 5Sol 48–55
trigeminothalamic tract tth 43–45
trochlear nerve 4n 41–44
trochlear nucleus 4N 39–40
trochlear nuclues shell region 4Sh 39–40
tuberal region of lateral hypothalamus TuLH 27–31
U
uvular fissure uf 56–59
V
vagus nerve 10n 52
ventral anterior thalamic nucleus VA 27
ventral cochlear nucleus, anterior part VCA 43–47
ventral cochlear nucleus, posterior part VCP 47–49
ventral endopiriform nucleus VEn 24–29
ventral geniculate nucleus VG 29–34
ventral geniculate nucleus, magnocellular part VGMC 31–32
ventral geniculate nucleus, parvicellular part VGPC 31–32
ventral hippocampal commissure vhc 25–27
ventral linear nucleus of the thalamus VLi 33
ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus VNLL 40
ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, dorsal part dVNLL 41–42
ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, ventral part vVNLL 41–43
ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body VNTB 43–47
ventral orbital cortex VO 9–16
ventral pallidum VP 16–25
ventral part of claustrum VCl 16–26
ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus, parvicellular part VPPC 31
ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus VPL 28–31
ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus VPM 28–32
ventral reuniens thalamic nucleus VRe 27–30
ventral spinocerebellar tract vsc 43–62
ventral subiculum VS 31–36
ventral tegmental area VTA 37–38
ventral tegmental area, rostral part VTAR 34–35
ventral tegmental decussation vtgx 35–37
ventral tegmental nucleus VTg 42
ventral tenia tecta VTT 11–16
ventral tuberomammillary nucleus VTM 33–34
ventrolateral hypothalamic nucleus VLH 27
ventrolateral hypothalamic tract vlh 27
ventrolateral periaqueductal gray VLPAG 37–42
ventrolateral preoptic nucleus VLPO 23–24
ventrolateral thalamic nucleus VL 27–30
ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus VMH 28–31
ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, central part VMHC 29–30
ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial part VMHDM 29–30
venalamic nucleus, ventrolateral part VMHVL 29–30
ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus shell VMHSh 28–31
ventromedial preoptic nucleus VMPO 23–24
ventromedial thalamic nucleus VM 27–30
vestibulocerebellar nucleus VeCb 46–49
vestibulocochlear nerve 8n 46–48
vestibulomesencephalic tract veme 46–48
vestibulospinal tract vesp 49
X
xiphoid thalamic nucleus Xi 27–28
Z
zona incerta ZI 28–29
zona incerta, caudal part ZIC 34–34
zona incerta, dorsal part ZID 30–33
zona incerta, rostral part ZIR 26–27
zona incerta, ventral part ZIV 30–33
zonal layer of the superior colliculus Zo 33–41

Index of abbreviations

The abbreviations are listed in alphabetical order followed by the name of the structure and the plate number(s) of occurrence

1 layer 1 of cortex 11–33
2 layer 2 of cortex 11–33
3 layer 3 of cortex 11–33
4 layer 4 of cortex 14–16
1Cb 1st cerebellar lobule (lingula) 46–48
2Cb 2nd cerebellar lobule 43–46
3Cb 3rd cerebellar lobule 43–49
3n oculomotor nerve 36–37
3N oculomotor nucleus 37–38
3PC oculomotor nucleus, parvicellular part 36
3V 3rd ventricle 23–34
4Cb 4th cerebellar lobule 41–49
4n trochlear nerve 41–44
4N trochlear nucleus 39–40
4Sh trochlear nuclues shell region 39–40
4V 4th ventricle 43–54
5ADi motor trigeminal nucleus, anterior digastric part 45–46
5Cb 5th cerebellar lobule 42–50
5N motor trigeminal nucleus 44–45
5Sol trigeminal-solitary transition zone 48–55
5Tr trigeminal transition zone 44–46
5TT motor trigeminal nucleus, tensor tympani part 43–44
6Cb 6th cerebellar lobule 46–54
6n abducens nerve 46–47
6N abducens nucleus 47
7Cb 7th cerebellar lobule 51–56
7DI facial nucleus, dorsal intermediate subnucleus 48–50
7DL facial nucleus, dorsolateral subnucleus 48–50
7DM facial nucleus, dorsomedial subnucleus 48–50
7L facial nucleus, lateral subnucleus 49–51
7n facial nerve 45–47
7VI facial nucleus, ventral intermediate subnucleus 48–50
7VM facial nucleus, ventromedial subnucleus 48–50
8Cb 8th cerebellar lobule 51–58
8n vestibulocochlear nerve 46–48
9aCb 9th cerebellar lobule, a 52–59
9bCb 9th cerebellar lobule, b 52–59
9Cb 9th cerebellar lobule 50–51
9cCb 9th cerebellar lobule, c 52–59
9N glossopharyngeal nerve nucleus 62
10Cb 10th cerebellar lobule (nodule) 50–55
10N dorsal motor nucleus of vagus 53–58
10n vagus nerve 52
11N accessory nerve nucleus 60–62
12GH hypoglossal nucleus, geniohyoid part 57–58
12n hypoglossal nerve 53–58
12N hypoglossal nucleus 51–58
A
A1 primary auditory field 29–33
A11 A11 dopamine cells 30–31
A13 A13 dopamine cells 28–29
A5 A5 noradrenaline cells 44–47
AA anterior amygdaloid area 24–26
AAF anterior auditory field 28–29
aca anterior commissure, anterior part 11–24
AcbC accumbens nucleus, core 16–21
AcbSh accumbens nucleus, shell 16–21
acer anterior cerebral artery 23
aci anterior commissure, intrabulbar part 1–10
ACo anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus 24–28
acp anterior commissure, posterior part 23–25
AD anterodorsal thalamic nucleus 26–27
af amygdaloid fissure 31–32
AHA anterior hypothalamic area, anterior part 25–26
AHC anterior hypothalamic area, central part 27–28
AHi amygdalohippocampal area 29–33
AHP anterior hypothalamic area, posterior part 28
AI agranular insular cortex 11–27
ALPO anterolateral periolivary nucleus 44
alv alveus of the hippocampus 27–38
AM anteromedial thalamic nucleus 25–28
AmbC ambiguus nucleus, compact part 52
AmbL ambiguus nucleus, loose part 55
AmbSC ambiguus nucleus, subcompact part 53–54
AMV anteromedial thalamic nucleus, ventral part 27
AngT angular thalamic nucleus 28–28
ANS accessory neurosecretory nuclei 27–28
AOD anterior olfactory nucleus, dorsal part 8–12
AOE anterior olfactory nucleus, external part 6–10
AOL anterior olfactory nucleus, lateral part 6–12
AOM anterior olfactory nucleus, medial part 9–13
AOP anterior olfactory nucleus, posterior part 14–16
AOV anterior olfactory nucleus, ventral part 8–11
AOVP anterior olfactory nucleus, ventroposterior part 11–15
AP area postrema 55–56
APir amygdalopiriform transition area 30–35
apmf ansoparamedian fissure 52–55
APT anterior pretectal nucleus 35
APTD anterior pretectal nucleus, dorsal part 31–34
APTV anterior pretectal nucleus, ventral part 32–34
Aq aqueduct 35–42
Arc arcuate hypothalamic nucleus 27–33
asc7 ascending fibers of the facial nerve 48
ASt amygdalostriatal transition area 26–30
ATg anterior tegmental nucleus 40–41
Au1 primary auditory cortex 28–33
AuD secondary auditory cortex, dorsal area 28–36
AuV secondary auditory cortex, ventral area 28–36
AV anteroventral thalamic nucleus 25
AVDM anterovent thalamic nucleus, dorsomedial part 26–28
AVPe anteroventral periventricular nucleus 23
AVVL anteroventral thalamic nucleus, ventrolateral part 26–27
B
B basal nucleus (Meynert) 24–29
BAC bed nucleus of the anterior commissure 24
BAOT bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract 27
Bar Barrington’s nucleus 43–44
bic brachium of the inferior colliculus 36–40
BIC nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus 36–37
BLA basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, anterior part 25–29
BLP basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, posterior part 27–32
BLV basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, ventral part 25–27
BMA basomedial amygdaloid nucleus, anterior part 25–27
BMP basomedial amygdaloid nucleus, posterior part 28–31
Bo Bötzinger complex 52
bsc brachium of the superior colliculus 33–35
BV blood vessel 21
C
CA1 field CA1 of the hippocampus 28–36
CA2 field CA2 of the hippocampus 28–32
CA3 field CA3 of the hippocampus 27–34
CAT nucleus of the central acoustic tract 43
CB cell bridges of the ventral striatum 20–22
cbw cerebellar white matter 43–57
CC central canal 55–62
cc corpus callosum 20–30
CeC central amygdaloid nucleus, capsular part 26– 29
CeCv central cervical nucleus of the spinal cord 56–62
CeL central amygdaloid nucleus, lateral division 27–28
CeM central amygdaloid nucleus, medial division 25–29
CEnt caudomedial entothinal cortex 35–41
CG central gray 43
cg cingulum 17–34
Cg1 cingulate cortex, area 1 10–27
Cg2 cingulate cortex, area 2 19–27
CGA central gray, alpha part 44–46
CGB central gray, beta part 44–45
CGG central gray, gamma part 46
CGO central gray, nucleus O 44–45
CGPn central gray of the pons 45
chp choroid plexus 24–54
CIC central nucleus of the inferior colliculus 39–42
cic commissure of the inferior colliculus 42–43
CL centrolateral thalamic nucleus 28–31
Cl claustrum 12–27
CLi caudal linear nucleus of the raphe 37–39
cll commissure of the lateral lemniscus 41–42
CM central medial thalamic nucleus 26–31
CnF cuneiform nucleus 41–43
Cop copula of the pyramis 49–57
cp cerebral peduncle 28–39
CPO caudal periolivary nucleus 48
CPu caudate putamen (striatum) 17–30
Crus1 crus 1 of the ansiform lobule 43–54
Crus2 crus 2 of the ansiform lobule 49–55
csc commissure of the superior colliculus34–36
cst commissural stria terminalis 26–27
cu cuneate fasciculus 53–62
Cu cuneate nucleus 52–62
CuR cuneate nucleus, rotundus part 55–56
CVL caudoventrolateral reticular nucleus 52–53
CxA cortex-amygdala transition zone 24–26
D
DA dorsal hypothalamic area 29–30
das dorsal acoustic stria 49–50
DCDp dorsal cochlear nucleus, deep core 49–50
DCFu dorsal cochlear nucleus, fusiform layer 48–50
DCIC dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus 40–43
DCl dorsal part of claustrum 16–26
DCMo dorsal cochlear nucleus, molecular layer 48–50
dcs dorsal corticospinal tract 60–62
dcw deep cerebral white matter 29–39
DEn dorsal endopiriform nucleus 12–32
df dorsal fornix 26–27
DG dentate gyrus 30
dhc dorsal hippocampal commissure 28–38
DI dysgranular insular cortex 13–27
Dk nucleus of Darkschewitsch 33–35
DLG dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus 29–33
dlo dorsal lateral olfactory tract 5–12
DLO dorsolateral orbital cortex 9–12
DLPAG dorsolateral periaqueductal gray 36–42
DLPO dorsolateral periolivary nucleus 44–47
DM dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus 29–32
DMC dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, compact part 31
DMD dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsal part 31
DMIC dorsomedial nucleus of the inferior colliculus 41–43
DMPAG dorsomedial periaqueductal gray 35–42
DMSp5 dorsomedial spinal trigeminal nucleus 48–54
DMTg dorsomedial tegmental area 43–45
DMV dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, ventral part 31
DNLL dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus 41–42
DP dorsal peduncular cortex 12–18
DpG deep gray layer of the superior colliculus 33–41
DPGi dorsal paragigantocellular nucleus 48–51
DPO dorsal periolivary nucleus 45–47
DpWh deep white layer of the superior colliculus 34–41
DR dorsal raphe nucleus 37–38
DRC dorsal raphe nucleus, caudal part 43–44
DRD dorsal raphe nucleus, dorsal part 39–42
DRL dorsal raphe nucleus, lateral part 39–41
DRV dorsal raphe nucleus, ventral part 39–42
DS dorsal subiculum 33–36
dsc dorsal spinocerebellar tract 52–62
DTg dorsal tegmental nucleus 44
DTgC dorsal tegmental nucleus, central part 43
DTgP dorsal tegmental nucleus, pericentral part 43
dtgx dorsal tegmental decussation 36–37
Dtr dorsal transition zone 12–15
DTT dorsal tenia tecta 11–18
dVNLL ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, dorsal part 41–42
E
E ependyma and subependymal layer 1–23
EA sublenticular extended amygdala 26
EAC sublenticular extended amygdala, central part 25
ec external capsule 19–30
ECIC external cortex of the inferior colliculus 38–44
Ect ectorhinal cortex 28–42
ECu external cuneate nucleus 52–56
eml external medullary lamina 28–30
Ent entorhinal cortex 42
EP entopeduncular nucleus 27–28
EPl external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb 1–9
EPlA external plexiform layer of the accessory olfactory bulb 5–9
Eth ethmoid thalamic nucleus 32
EVe nucleus of origin of efferents of the vestibular nerve 47
EW Edinger–Westphal nucleus 36–38
F
f fornix 23–32
F nucleus of the fields of Forel 32–34
FC fasciola cinereum 29–33
fi fimbria of the hippocampus 22–30
Fl flocculus 43–48
fmi forceps minor of the corpus callosum 13–18
fmj forceps major of the corpus callosum 34–39
fr fasciculus retroflexus 27–36
Fr3 frontal cortex, area 3 11–17
FrA frontal association cortex 7–9
Fu bed nucleus of stria terminalis, fusiform part 23
FVe F cell group of the vestibular complex 52
G
g7 genu of the facial nerve 46–48
Gca globular cell area, ventral cochlear nucleus 46–49
gcc genu of the corpus callosum 19
Ge5 gelatinous layer of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus 57–62
Gi gigantocellular reticular nucleus 47–54
GI granular insular cortex 13–27
GiA gigantocellular reticular nucleus, alpha part 48–51
GiV gigantocellular reticular nucleus, ventral part 51–52
Gl glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb 1–11
GlA glomerular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb 5–10
GP globus pallidus 24–29
gr gracile fasciculus 54–62
Gr gracile nucleus 54–62
GrA granule cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb 3–10
GrC granule cell layer of cochlear nuclei 43–50
GrDG granular layer of the dentate gyrus 27–36
GrO granular cell layer of the olfactory bulb 1–10
H
hbc habenular commissure 31–32
HDB nucleus of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band 20–25
hif hippocampal fissure 30–34
I
I intercalated nuclei of the amygdala 23–29
IAD interanterodorsal thalamic nucleus 26–27
IAM interanteromedial thalamic nucleus 27
IB interstitial nucleus of the medulla 57–62
ic internal capsule 23–30
icf intercrural fissure 49–54
ICj islands of Calleja 16–22
ICjM islands of Calleja, major island 20–21
icp inferior cerebellar peduncle (restiform body) 46–53
IEn intermediate endopiriform nucleus 12–24
IF interfascicular nucleus 35–38
IG indusium griseum 18–33
IL infralimbic cortex 14–18
IM intercalated amygdaloid nucleus, main part 26
IMD intermediodorsal thalamic nucleus 28–30
IMG amygdaloid intramedullary gray 27–28
iml internal medullary lamina 26
imvc intermedioventral thalamic commissure 29–30
InC interstitial nucleus of Cajal 33–38
InG intermediate gray layer of the superior colliculus 33–41
INLL intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus 40–42
IntA interposed cerebellar nucleus, anterior part 47–49
IntDL interposed cerebellar nucleus, dorsolateral hump 47–50
IntDM interposed cerebellar nucleus, dorsomedial crest 48–50
IntP interposed cerebellar nucleus, posterior part 49–50
IntPPC interposed cerebellar nucleus, posterior parvicellular part 49–50
InWh intermediate white layer of the superior colliculus 33–41
IOA inferior olive, subnucleus A of medial nucleus 57–58
IOB inferior olive, subnucleus B of medial nucleus 56–58
IOBe inferior olive, beta subnucleus 56–58
IOC inferior olive, subnucleus C of medial nucleus 56–58
IOD inferior olive, dorsal nucleus 52–56
IODM inferior olive, dorsomedial cell group 52–55
IOK inferior olive, cap of Kooy of the medial nucleus 56–57
IOM inferior olive, medial nucleus 52–55
IOPr inferior olive, principal nucleus 52–56
IPAC interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure 22–25
IPC interpeduncular nucleus, caudal subnucleus 37–40
IPD interpeduncular nucleus, dorsal subnucleus 38
IPF interpeduncular fossa 36
IPI interpeduncular nucleus, intermediate subnucleus 38–39
IPl internal plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb 1–10
IPL interpeduncular nucleus, lateral subnucleus 37–39
IPR interpeduncular nucleus, rostral subnucleus 37–38
IRt intermediate reticular nucleus 46–62
isRt isthmic reticular formation 39–42
IVF interventricular foramen 25
K
KF Kölliker–Fuse nucleus 43–44
L
La lateral amygdaloid nucleus 26–31
LA lateroanterior hypothalamic nucleus 25–26
LAcbSh lateral accumbens shell 19–21
LaD lateral amygdaloid nucleus, dorsal part 27–30
Lat lateral (dentate) cerebellar nucleus 46–49
LatPC lateral cerebellar nucleus, parvicellular part 46–48
LaV lateral amygdaloid nucleus, ventral part 27–30
LC locus coeruleus 44–45
Ld lambdoid septal zone 19–21
LDDM laterodorsal thalamic nucleus, dorsomedial part 27–28
LDTg laterodorsal tegmental nucleus 42–44
LDTgV laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, ventral part 43
LDVL laterodorsal thalamic nucleus, ventrolateral part 27–29
LEnt lateral entorhinal cortex 29–41
lfp longitudinal fasciculus of the pons 40–43
LHb lateral habenular nucleus 28–31
LHbL lateral habenular nucleus, lateral part 29–30
LHbM lateral habenular nucleus, medial part 29–30
Li linear nucleus of the medulla 51–53
ll lateral lemniscus 39–43
LM lateral mammillary nucleus 33–35
LMol lacunosum moleculare layer of the hippocampus 29–36
LNTB lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body 44–47
lo lateral olfactory tract 5–25
LO lateral orbital cortex 8–16
LOT nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract 25–26
LPAG lateral periaqueductal gray 35–42
LPB lateral parabrachial nucleus 45
LPBC lateral parabrachial nucleus, central part 43–44
LPBCr lateral parabrachial nucleus, crescent part 44
LPBI lateral parabrachial nucleus, internal part 43–45
LPGi lateral paragigantocellular nucleus 51–53
LPGiA lateral paragigantocellular nucleus, alpha part 48–50
LPGiE lateral paragigantocellular nucleus, external part 48–50
LPLC lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, laterocaudal part 32–33
LPLR lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, laterorostral part 29–31
LPMC lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, mediocaudal part 32–34
LPMR lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, mediorostral part 29–32
LPO lateral preoptic area 22–25
LPtA lateral parietal association cortex 28–30
LR4V lateral recess of the 4th ventricle 45–51
LRt lateral reticular nucleus 54–59
LRtPC lateral reticular nucleus, parvicellular part 56–58
LRtS5 lateral reticular nucleus, subtrigeminal part 55–56
LSD lateral septal nucleus, dorsal part 19–25
LSI lateral septal nucleus, intermediate part 18–23
LSO lateral superior olive 45–47
LSS lateral stripe of the striatum 21–23
LSV lateral septal nucleus, ventral part 19–23
LT lateral terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract 33
LTer lemina terminalis 24
Lth lithoid nucleus 33
LV lateral ventricle 17–32
LVe lateral vestibular nucleus 47–49
LVPO lateroventral periolivary nucleus 44–47
M
M1 primary motor cortex 11–28
M2 secondary motor cortex 10–28
m5 motor root of the trigeminal nerve 43–45
MA3 medial accessory oculomotor nucleus 34–35
mcer middle cerebral artery 23
mch medial corticohypothalamic tract 25
MCLH magnocellular nucleus of the lateral hypothalamus 29
mcp middle cerebellar peduncle 40–46
MCPC magnocellular nucleus of the posterior commissure 33–34
MCPO magnocellular preoptic nucleus 23–25
MD mediodorsal thalamic nucleus 27
MDC mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, central part 28–30
MdD medullary reticular nucleus, dorsal part 55–62
MDL mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, lateral part 28–30
MDM mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, medial part 28–30
MdV medullary reticular nucleus, ventral part 55–62
ME median eminence 30–32
Me5 mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus 38–45
me5 mesencephalic trigeminal tract 43–45
MeAD medial amygdaloid nucleus, anterodorsal part 26–27
MeAV medial amygdaloid nucleus, anteroventral part 27
Med medial (fastigial) cerebellar nucleus 47–50
MedDL medial cerebellar nucleus, dorsolateral protuberance 49–50
MedL medial cerebellar nucleus, lateral part 49–50
MEnt medial entorhinal cortex 34–41
MePD medial amygdaloid nucleus, posterodorsal part 27–29
MePV medial amygdaloid nucleus, posteroventral part 28–29
mfb medial forebrain bundle 19–32
MGD medial geniculate nucleus, dorsal part 33–36
MGM medial geniculate nucleus, medial part 33–36
MGV medial geniculate nucleus, ventral part 33–36
MHb medial habenular nucleus 27–31
Mi mitral cell layer of the olfactory bulb 1–10
MiA mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb 5–9
MiTg microcellular tegmental nucleus 38–39
ml medial lemniscus 28–54
ML medial mammillary nucleus, lateral part 34–36
mlf medial longitudinal fasciculus 37–62
mlx medial lemniscal decussation 56  
MM medial mammillary nucleus, medial part 34–35
MnA median accessory nucleus of the medulla 59–62
MnM medial mammillary nucleus, median part 34
MnPO median preoptic nucleus 22–24
MnR median raphe nucleus 39–43
MNTB medial nucleus of the trapezoid body 43–47
MO medial orbital cortex 8–14
MoDG molecular layer of the dentate gyrus 27–37
MoS molecular layer of the subiculum 37
mp mammillary peduncle 35–36
MPA medial preoptic area 22–25
MPB medial parabrachial nucleus 43–45
MPBE medial parabrachial nucleus, external part 44
MPL paralemniscal nucleus, medial part 41–42
MPO medial preoptic nucleus 24–25
MPT medial pretectal nucleus 32
MPtA medial parietal association cortex 28–30
MRe mammillary recess of the 3rd ventricle 34
mRt mesencehalic reticular formation 36–38
MS medial septal nucleus 19–23
MSO medial superior olive 44–47
mt mammillothalamic tract 27–33
MT medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract 35
mtg mammillotegmental tract 33
MTu medial tuberal nucleus 29–31
MVe medial vestibular nucleus 53
MVeMC medial vestibular nucleus, magnocellular part 46–52
MVePC medial vestibular nucleus, parvicellular part 46–52
MVPO medioventral periolivary nucleus 44–47
Mx matrix region of the medulla 50–59
MZMG marginal zone of the medial geniculate 33–35
N
ns nigrostriatal bundle 27–33
Nv navicular nucleus of the basal forebrain 17–18
O
Obex obex 57
oc olivocerebellar tract 50–54
Oca octopus cell area, ventral cochlear nucleus 47–49
ocb olivocochlear bundle 46–47
och optic chiasm 21–25
ON olfactory nerve layer 1–8
Op optic nerve layer of the superior colliculus 33–40
OPC oval paracentral thalamic nucleus 29–31
OPT olivary pretectal nucleus 32–33
opt optic tract 26–33
Or oriens layer of the hippocampus 27–36
OT nucleus of the optic tract 32–35
OV olfactory ventricle (olfactory part of lateral ventricle) 1–16
P
p1PAG p1 periaqueductal gray 32–34
p1Rt p1 reticular formation 32–35
P5 peritrigeminal zone 43–46
P7 perifacial zone 48–51
Pa4 paratrochlear nucleus 40–41
Pa5 paratrigeminal nucleus 54–57
Pa6 paraabducens nucleus 46–47
PaAP paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, anterior parvicellular part 25–26
PaMM paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, medial magnocellular part 27–28
PaMP paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, medial parvicellular part 27
PaPo paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, posterior part 28
PaR pararubral nucleus 35–38
PaS parasubiculum 35–42
PaV paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, ventral part 27
PaXi paraxiphoid nucleus of thalamus 27–29
PBG parabigeminal nucleus 38–40
PBP parabrachial pigmented nucleus of the ventral tegmental area 33–37
PC paracentral thalamic nucleus 27–30
pc posterior commissure 32–34
PCGS paracochlear glial substance 46
pcn precentral fissure 43–46
PCom nucleus of the posterior commissure 33–34
PCRt parvicellular reticular nucleus 46–54
pcuf preculminate fissure 43–47
PDR posterodorsal raphe nucleus 39–42
PDTg posterodorsal tegmental nucleus 45
Pe periventricular hypothalamic nucleus 23–30
PeF perifornical nucleus 29–30
PeFLH perifornical part of lateral hypothalamus 29–32
PF parafascicular thalamic nucleus 31–32
PFl paraflocculus 43–50
pfs parafloccular sulcus 44–50
PH posterior hypothalamic nucleus 31–32
PHA posterior hypothalamic area 33
PHD posterior hypothalamic area, dorsal part 30–31
PIF parainterfascicular nucleus of the ventral tegmental area 36–37
PIL posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus 33–35
Pir piriform cortex 11–33
PL paralemniscal nucleus 40–42
PLCo posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus 27–29
plf posterolateral fissure 43–55
PLH peduncular part of lateral hypothalamus 26–33
PLi posterior limitans thalamic nucleus 33–35
PLV perilemniscal nucleus, ventral part 41–43
PM paramedian lobule 49–56
pm principal mammillary tract 33–34
PMCo posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus 29–33
PMD premammillary nucleus, dorsal part 33
PMnR paramedian raphe nucleus 39–42
pms paramedian sulcus 50–55
PMV premammillary nucleus, ventral part 32–33
PN paranigral nucleus of the ventral tegmental area 36–37
Pn pontine nuclei 39–42
PnC pontine reticular nucleus, caudal part 44–47
PnO pontine reticular nucleus, oral part 39–43
PnR pontine raphe nucleus 43
PnV pontine reticular nucleus, ventral part 45–47
Po posterior thalamic nuclear group 28–33
PoDG polymorph layer of the dentate gyrus 28–35
PoMn posteromedian thalamic nucleus 31
Post postsubiculum 35–40
PoT posterior thalamic nuclear group, triangular part 33–35
PP peripeduncular nucleus 33–35
ppf prepyramidal fissure 51–56
PPT posterior pretectal nucleus 33–35
PPy parapyramidal nucleus 49–50
Pr prepositus nucleus 47–53
PR prerubral field 31–34
Pr5DM principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, dorsomedial part 44–47
Pr5VL principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, ventrolateral part 43–47
PrC precommissural nucleus 31–33
PrCnF precuneiform area 38–41
PrEW pre-Edinger–Westphal nucleus 34–35
prf primary fissure 43–50
PRh perirhinal cortex 28–42
PrL prelimbic cortex 9–18
PrS presubiculum 35–38
PS parastrial nucleus 23–24
psf posterior superior fissure 43–54
PSol parasolitary nucleus 54–55
PSTh parasubthalamic nucleus 32
PT paratenial thalamic nucleus 25–27
Pta pericollicular tegmental area 39–43
PTe paraterete nucleus 29–30
PTg pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus 38–42
PtP parietal cortex, posterior area 28–31
PV paraventricular thalamic nucleus 27–28
PVA paraventricular thalamic nucleus, anterior part 25–26
PVP paraventricular thalamic nucleus, posterior part 29–31
Py pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus 27–36
py pyramidal tract 43–58
pyx pyramidal decussation 57–62
R
Rad radiatum layer of the hippocampus 28–36
RAmb retroambiguus nucleus 56–58
RAPir rostral amygdalopiriform area 28–30
Rbd rhabdoid nucleus 39
RCh retrochiasmatic area 27–28
RChL retrochiasmatic area, lateral part 27
Re reuniens thalamic nucleus 26–30
REth retroethmoid nucleus 33
rf rhinal fissure 7–41
Rh rhomboid thalamic nucleus 27–30
ri rhinal incisure 7–12
RI rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus 32–33
RIP raphe interpositus nucleus 46–48
RLi rostral linear nucleus of the raphe 35–35
RMC red nucleus, magnocellular part 35–38
RMg raphe magnus nucleus 44–51
Ro nucleus of Roller 52–56
ROb raphe obscurus nucleus 50–58
RPa raphe pallidus nucleus 43–58
RPC red nucleus, parvicellular part 35–36
RPO rostral periolivary nucleus 44
RR retrorubral nucleus 39–40
RRe retrouniens area 31
RRF retrorubral field 37–39
rs rubrospinal tract 41–62
RSD retrosplenial dysgranular cortex 27–42
RSG retrosplenial granular cortex 40
RSGa retrosplenial granular cortex, a region 35–39
RSGb retrosplenial granular cortex, b region 32–39
RSGc retrosplenial granular cortex, c region 27–36
Rt reticular thalamic nucleus 26–30
RtSt reticluostrial nucleus 26
RtTg reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons 41–45
RtTgP reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons, pericentral part 41–42
RVRG rostral ventral respiratory group 53
S
S1 primary somatosensory cortex 24–30
S1BF primary somatosensory cortex, barrel field 20–28
S1DZ primary somatosensory cortex, dysgranular zone 16–28
S1DZO primary somatosensory cortex, oral dysgranular zone 18–19
S1FL primary somatosensory cortex, forelimb region 15–24
S1HL primary somatosensory cortex, hindlimb region 20–26
S1J primary somatosensory cortex, jaw region 13–20
S1Sh primary somatosensory cortex, shoulder region 25–26
S1Tr primary somatosensory cortex, trunk region 27–28
S1ULp primary somatosensory cortex, upper lip region 18–28
S2 secondary somatosensory cortex 18–28
s5 sensory root of the trigeminal nerve 42–47
Sag sagulum nucleus 41–43
Sc scaphoid thalamic nucleus 32
Sca spherical cell area, ventral cochlear nucleus 43–46
scc splenium of the corpus callosum 31–33
SCh suprachiasmatic nucleus 25
SChDL suprachiasmatic nucleus, dorsolateral part 26
SChVM suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventromedial part 26
SCO subcommissural organ 32–34
scp superior cerebellar peduncle 41–49
sf secondary fissure 53–58
SFi septofimbrial nucleus 22–25
SFO subfornical organ 25
SG suprageniculate thalamic nucleus 33–36
SGe supragenual nucleus 46
SHi septohippocampal nucleus 18–25
SIB substantia innominata, basal part 21–24
Sim simple lobule 43–49
simf simplex fissure 47–49
SLu stratum lucidum of the hippocampus 28–33
sm stria medullaris of the thalamus 25–30
SMV superior medullary velum 45–47
SNC substantia nigra, compact part 33–38
SNR substantia nigra, reticular part 33–38
SO supraoptic nucleus 23–27
Sol nucleus of the solitary tract 49–50
sol solitary tract 50–57
SolC nucleus of the solitary tract, commissural part 55–62
SolDL solitary nucleus, dorsolateral part 55–57
SolM nucleus of the solitary tract, medial part 55–59
SolV solitary nucleus, ventral part 55–57
SolVL nucleus of the solitary tract, ventrolateral part 55–57
sox supraoptic decussation 26–32
sp5 spinal trigeminal tract 48–62
Sp5C spinal trigeminal nucleus, caudal part 55–62
Sp5I spinal trigeminal nucleus, interpolar part 49–56
Sp5O spinal trigeminal nucleus, oral part 48–51
SPa subparaventricular zone of the hypothalamus 27–28
SPF subparafascicular thalamic nucleus 31
SPFPC subparafascicular thalamic nucleus, parvicellular part 31–32
SPN superior periolivary nucleus 44–47
SPTg subpeduncular tegmental nucleus 40–42
SpVe spinal vestibular nucleus 48–53
ST bed nucleus of the stria terminalis 22
st stria terminalis 23–31
StA strial part of the preoptic area 23
STh subthalamic nucleus 30–32
STIA bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, intraamygdaloid division 28–29
STLI bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral division, intermediate part 24
STLP bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral division, posterior part 23–24
STLV bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral division, ventral part 23–24
STMA bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial division, anterior part 23–24
STMP bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial division, posterior part 25–26
STMV bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial division, ventral part 23–24
STr subiculum, transition area 37–38
str superior thalamic radiation 31–32
Su3 supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray 36–39
Su3C supraoculomotor cap 36–36
Su5 supratrigeminal nucleus 43–45
Sub submedius thalamic nucleus 30
SubB subbrachial nucleus 36–38
SubCA subcoeruleus nucleus, alpha part 44
SubCD subcoeruleus nucleus, dorsal part 43–45
SubCV subcoeruleus nucleus, ventral part 43–45
SubD submedius thalamic nucleus, dorsal part 28–29
SubG subgeniculate nucleus 31–32
SubI subincertal nucleus 29–30
SubV submedius thalamic nucleus, ventral part 28–29
SuG superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus 33–41
SuML supramammillary nucleus, lateral part 33–34
SuMM supramammillary nucleus, medial part 33–34
sumx supramammillary decussation 34
SuVe superior vestibular nucleus 46–47
T
Te terete hypothalamic nucleus 31
TeA temporal association cortex 37–39
tfp transverse fibers of the pons 39
TG tectal gray 33–35
ts tectospinal tract 39–62
TS triangular septal nucleus 24–25
tth trigeminothalamic tract 43–45
Tu olfactory tubercle 16–23
TuLH tuberal region of lateral hypothalamus 27–31
tz trapezoid body 43–49
tzx decussation of the trapezoid body 44–47
U
uf uvular fissure 56–59
V
V1 primary visual cortex 31–42
V1B primary visual cortex, binocular area 32–39
V1M primary visual cortex, monocular area 32–39
V2L secondary visual cortex, lateral area 31–41
V2M secondary visual cortex, medial area 31–40
VA ventral anterior thalamic nucleus 27
VCA ventral cochlear nucleus, anterior part 43–47
VCl ventral part of claustrum 16–26
VCP ventral cochlear nucleus, posterior part 47–49
VDB nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band 19–21
VeCb vestibulocerebellar nucleus 46–49
veme vestibulomesencephalic tract 46–48
VEn ventral endopiriform nucleus 24–29
vesp vestibulospinal tract 49
VG ventral geniculate nucleus 29–34
VGMC ventral geniculate nucleus, magnocellular part 31–32
VGPC ventral geniculate nucleus, parvicellular part 31–32
vhc ventral hippocampal commissure 25–27
VL ventrolateral thalamic nucleus 27–30
VLH ventrolateral hypothalamic nucleus 27
vlh ventrolateral hypothalamic tract 27
VLi ventral linear nucleus of the thalamus 33
VLPAG ventrolateral periaqueductal gray 37–42
VLPO ventrolateral preoptic nucleus 23–24
VM ventromedial thalamic nucleus 27–30
VMH ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus 28–31
VMHC ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, central part 29–30
VMHDM ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial part 29–30
VMHSh ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus shell 28–31
VMHVL ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, ventrolateral part 29–30
VMPO ventromedial preoptic nucleus 23–24
VNLL ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus 40
VNTB ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body 43–47
VO ventral orbital cortex 9–16
VP ventral pallidum 16–25
VPL ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus 28–31
VPM ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus 28–32
VPPC ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus, parvicellular part 31
VRe ventral reuniens thalamic nucleus 27–30
VS ventral subiculum 31–36
vsc ventral spinocerebellar tract 43–62
VTA ventral tegmental area 37–38
VTAR ventral tegmental area, rostral part 34–35
VTg ventral tegmental nucleus 42
vtgx ventral tegmental decussation 35–37
VTM ventral tuberomammillary nucleus 33–34
VTT ventral tenia tecta 11–16
vVNLL ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, ventral part 41–43
X
X nucleus X 48–52
Xi xiphoid thalamic nucleus 27–28
xscp decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle 39–41
Y
Y nucleus Y 48
Z
ZI zona incerta 28–29
ZIC zona incerta, caudal part 34–34
ZID zona incerta, dorsal part 30–33
ZIR zona incerta, rostral part 26–27
ZIV zona incerta, ventral part 30–33
Zo zonal layer of the superior colliculus 33–41
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Fig. 4
figure 4

Anterior–posterior location of the atlas plates on the gerbil brain. Upper panel view from above. Lower panel side view. Distance between plates is 350 µm