Advertisement

Archive for History of Exact Sciences

, Volume 68, Issue 1, pp 67–120 | Cite as

Muḥyī al-Dīn al-Maghribī’s lunar measurements at the Maragha observatory

  • S. Mohammad MozaffariEmail author
Article

Abstract

This paper is a technical study of the systematic observations and computations made by Muḥyī al-Dīn al-Maghribī (d. 1283) at the Maragha observatory (north-western Iran, c. 1259–1320) in order to newly determine the parameters of the Ptolemaic lunar model, as explained in his Talkhīṣ al-majisṭī, “Compendium of the Almagest.” He used three lunar eclipses on March 7, 1262, April 7, 1270, and January 24, 1274, in order to measure the lunar epicycle radius and mean motions; an observation on April 20, 1264, to determine the lunar eccentricity; an observation on August 29, 1264, to test the model; and another on March 15, 1262, for measuring the lunar parallax. In the second period of activity at the Maragha observatory, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Wābkanawī (c. 1254–1320) adopted all of al-Maghribī’s parameter values in his Zīj, but decreased his value for the mean longitude of the moon at epoch by 0;13,11\(^{\circ }\). By comparing the times of the new moons and lunar eclipses in the period of 1270–1320 as computed from the astronomical tables of the Maragha tradition with the true modern ones, it is argued that this correction was very probably the result of actual observations.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author notes with the best thanks and gratitude the suggestions and comments of Dr. Benno van Dalen (Germany). This work has been supported financially by Research institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM) under research Project No. 1/2782-55.

References

  1. Anonymous, Sulṭānī zīj, MS. Iran, Parliament Library, no. 184.Google Scholar
  2. Bellver, J. 2006. Jābir b. Aflaḥ on the four-eclipse method for finding the lunar period in anomaly. Suhayl 6: 159–248.zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. Bellver, J. 2008. Jābir b. Aflaḥ on lunar eclipses. Suhayl 8: 47–91.Google Scholar
  4. Bīrūnī, Abū al-Rayḥān. 1954. al-Qānūn al-mas‘ūdī. Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau.Google Scholar
  5. Bowen, A.C. 2008. Simplicius’ commentary on Aristotle, De Caelo 2.10-12: An annotated translation (Part 2). SCIAMVS 9: 25–131.zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  6. Brockelmann, K. Geschichte der arabischen Literatur, Vols. 1–2, 2nd ed., Leiden, 1943–1949, Supplementbände 1–3, Leiden, 1937–1942.Google Scholar
  7. van Dalen, B. 2002a. Islamic and Chinese astronomy under the Mongols: A little-known case of transmission. In From China to Paris: 2000 years transmission of mathematical ideas, ed. Dold-Samplonius Yvonne, 327–356. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.Google Scholar
  8. van Dalen, B. 2002b. Islamic astronomical tables in China: The sources for the Huihui Ii. In History of oriental astronomy (Proceedings of the joint discussion 17 at the 23rd general assembly of the international astronomical union, organised by the Commission 41 (History of Astronomy), Held in Kyoto, August 25–26, 1997), ed. Ansari Razaullah, 19–30. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  9. van Dalen, B. 2004a. A second manuscript of the Mumtaḥan Zīj. Suhayl 4: 9–44.Google Scholar
  10. van Dalen, B. 2004b. Science, techniques et instruments dans le monde Iranien. In The activities of Iranian astronomers in Mongol China, ed. N. Pourjavady, and Ž. Vesel, 17–28. Téhéran: Institut Français de Recherche en Iran.Google Scholar
  11. van Dalen, B. 2007. Wābkanawī. In The biographical encyclopedia of astronomers, ed. Thomas Hockey, 1187–1188. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  12. Dorce, C. 2002–2003. The Tāj al-azyāj of Muḥyī al-Dīn al-Maghribī (d. 1283): methods of computation. Suhayl 3:193–212.Google Scholar
  13. Duke, D. 2005. Hipparchus’ eclipse trios and early trigonometry. Centaurus 47: 163–177.CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. Espenak, Fred. NASA’s five millennium catalog of lunar eclipses. http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/LEcat5/LEcatalog.html.
  15. Al-Fārisī. Zīj al-muẓaffarī, MS. Cambridge Gg.3.27, no. 508.Google Scholar
  16. Gillipsie C.C. et al. (ed.). 1970–1980. [DSB] Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 16 Vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  17. Haddad, F.I., and E.S. Kennedy. 1971. Geographical tables of medieval Islam. Al-Abhath 24:87–102. Reprinted in Kennedy, SIES, pp. 636–651.Google Scholar
  18. Heath, T.L. 1952. [the 5th ed. 1994], The thirteen books of euclid’s elements. In Great books of the Western World, vol. 10. Chicago: Encyclopedia of Britannica.Google Scholar
  19. Hockey, Thomas (ed.) et al. 2007. The biographical encyclopedia of astronomers. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  20. Hogendijk, J.P. 1993. An Arabic text on the comparison of the five regular polyhedra: ‘Book XV’ of the ‘Revision of the Elements’ by Muḥyī al-Dīn al-Maghribī. Zeitschrift fur Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften 8: 133–233.zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  21. Ḥunayn, b. ’Isḥāq and Thābit b. Qurra (tr.), Arabic Almagest, MS. Iran, Tehran, Sipahsālār Library, no. 594 (copied at H 480/ AD 1087–1088).Google Scholar
  22. Ibn al-Fuwatī, Kamāl al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Razzāq b. Muḥammad. 1995. Majma‘ al-ādāb fī mu‘jam al-alqāb, ed. Muḥamamd Kāẓim. Tehran: Ministry of Culture.Google Scholar
  23. Ibn al-Ṣalāh al-Hamadhānī. Fī kayfiyyat tasṭīḥ al-basīṭ al-kurī. MSS. Iran, Parliament, Library, no. 6412; no. 602, pp. 33–52; no. 6329, pp. 24–35.Google Scholar
  24. Ibn Yūnus, Abu al-Ḥasan \(^{\rm c}\)Alī b. \(^{\rm c}\)Abd al-Raḥmān b. Adhmad. Zīj al-kabīr al-ḥākimī. MS. Leiden, Or. 143.Google Scholar
  25. Kamālī, Muḥamamd b. ’Abī \(^{\rm c}\)Abd-Allāh Sanjar. Ashrafī Zīj. MS. Paris, Biblithèque Nationale, suppl. Pers. No. 1488.Google Scholar
  26. Kāshī, Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd. Khāqānī Zīj. MS. P: Iran, Parliament Library, No. 6198; IO: London, Inida Office, no. 430.Google Scholar
  27. Kennedy, E.S. 1956. A survey of Islamic astronomical tables. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.Google Scholar
  28. Kennedy, E.S. 1958. The Sasanian astronomical handbook Zīj-i Shāh and the astronomical doctrine of transit (Mamarr). Journal of American Oriental Society 78: 246–262. Reprinted in Kennedy, SIES, pp. 319–335.Google Scholar
  29. Kennedy, E.S. 1960. A letter of Jamshīd al-Kāshī to his father: Scientific research at a fifteen century court. Orientalia 29: 191–213. Reprinted in Kennedy, SIES, pp. 722–744.Google Scholar
  30. Kennedy, E.S. 1964. The Chinese-Uighur calendar as described in the Islamic sources. ISIS 55:435–443. Reprinted in Kennedy, SIES, pp. 652–660.Google Scholar
  31. Kennedy, E.S. 1991/1992. Transcription of Arabic letters in geometric figures. Zeitschrift fur Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften 7: 21–22.Google Scholar
  32. Kennedy, E.S., and D. Pingree (eds.). 1981. The book of the reasons behind astronomical tables. New York: Scholars’ Facsimiles & Reprints.Google Scholar
  33. Kennedy, E.S., colleagues, and former students. 1983. Studies in the Islamic exact sciences [SIES]. Beirut: American University of Beirut.Google Scholar
  34. Al-Khāzinī, Abd al-Raḥmān. Zīj al-Mu‘tabar al-Sanjarī, MS. V: Vatican Library, No. 761.Google Scholar
  35. Al-Khāzinī, A. Wajīz [Abridgment of] al-Zīj al-Mu‘tabar al-Sanjarī [Considered Zij of Sultan Sanjar], MS. Istanbul, Suleymaniye Library, Hamadiye Collection, No. 859.Google Scholar
  36. King, D. 1986. The earliest Islamic mathematical methods and tables for finding the direction of Mecca. Zeitschrift fur Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften 3: 82–149.zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  37. King, D., J. Samsó, and B.R. Goldstein. 2001. Astronomical handbooks and tables from the Islamic World. Suhayl 2: 9–105.zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  38. Kunitzsch, P. 1964. Das Fixsterverzeichnis in der ,,Persischen Syntaxis“ des Georgios Chrysokokkes. Byzantinische Zeitschrift 57: 382–411.Google Scholar
  39. Lorch, R. 2000. Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ’s treatise on projection: A preliminary survey. In Sic Itur ad Astra: Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, ed. Folkerts Menso, and R. Lorch, 401–408. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.Google Scholar
  40. Al-Maghribī, Mūḥyī al-Dīn. Adwār al-anwār, MS. M: Iran, Mashhad, Holy Shrine Library, no. 332, MS. CB: Ireland, Dublin, Chester Beaty Library, no. 3665.Google Scholar
  41. Al-Maghribī, Mūḥyī al-Dīn. Talkhīṣ al-majisṭī, MS. Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Or. 110.Google Scholar
  42. Meeus, J. 2002. More mathematical astronomy morsels. Richmond: William-Bell.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  43. Mozaffari, S.M. 2007. The mathematical basis and functions of astrolabe with focus on the old texts: “Projection of Astrolabe” by Muhyiddin Al-Maghribi, Thesis for receiving M. Sc. degree in History of Science (Majoring in Astronomy), Tehran: University of Tehran, 2007, unpublished.Google Scholar
  44. Mozaffari, S.M. 2009. Wābkanawī’s and the first scientific observation of an annular eclipse. The Observatory 129: 144–146. [It should be read accompanied with Mozaffari, S. Mohammad, 2010. Wābkanawī’s annular eclipse. The Observatory 130: 39–40].Google Scholar
  45. Mozaffari, S.M. 2012. The effect of astrological opinions on society: A preliminary view. Trames 16: 359–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mozaffari, S.M. 2013a. Limitations of methods: The accuracy of the values measured for the Earth’s/Sun’s orbital elements in the Middle East, A.D. 800–1500. Journal for the History of Astronomy 44: 313–336 and 389–411.Google Scholar
  47. Mozaffari, S.M. 2013b. Wābkanawī’s observation and calculations of the annular solar eclipse of 30 January 1283. Historia Mathematica 40: 235–261.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  48. Mozaffari, S.M., and G. Zotti. 2012. Ghāzān Khān’s astronomical innovations at Marāgha observatory. Journal of American Oriental Society 132: 395–425.Google Scholar
  49. Mozaffari, S.M., and G. Zotti. 2013. The Observational Instruments at the Maragha Observatory after AD 1300. Suhayl (to appear).Google Scholar
  50. Needham, J. 1981. Science in traditional China: A comparative perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Neugebauer, O. 1975. A history of ancient mathematical astronomy. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  52. Pedersen, O. 1974. A survey of the Almagest. Odense: Odense University Press. [With annotation and new commentary by A. Jones, New York: Springer, 2010].Google Scholar
  53. Pingree, D. ed. 1985. Astronomical works of gregory chioniades, vol. 1: Zīj al-‘alā’ī. Amsterdam: Gieben.Google Scholar
  54. Rosenfeld, B.A., and E. Ihsanoglu. 2003. Mathematicians, astronomers, and other scholars of Islamic civilization and their works, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  55. Said, S.S., and F.R. Stephenson. 1997. Solar and Lunar Eclipse measurements by medieval Muslim astronomers, II: Observations. Journal for the History of Astronomy 28: 29–48.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  56. Saliba, G. 1983. An observational notebook of a thirteenth-century astronomer. ISIS 74: 388–401. Repr. in Saliba 1994, pp. 163–176.Google Scholar
  57. Saliba, G. 1985. Solar observations at Maragha observatory. Journal for the History of Astronomy 16:113–122. Repr. in Saliba 1994, pp. 177–186.Google Scholar
  58. Saliba, G. 1986. The determination of new planetary parameters at the Maragha observatory. Centaurus 29: 249–271. Repr. in Saliba 1994, pp. 208–230.Google Scholar
  59. Saliba, G. 1994. A history of Arabic astronomy: Planetary theories during the golden age of Islam. New York: New York University.Google Scholar
  60. Sarton, G. 1953. Introduction to the history of science, Vol 2. Part 2, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  61. Sayılı, A. 1960. The observatory in Islam. Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi.Google Scholar
  62. Seemann, H.J. 1929. Die Instrumente der Sternwarte zu Maragha nach den Mitteilungen von al-‘Urḍī. In Sitzungsberichte der Physikalisch-medizinischen Sozietät zu Erlangen, ed. Oskar Schulz, vol. 60 (1928), 15–126. Erlangen: Kommissionsverlag von Max Mencke.Google Scholar
  63. Sezgin, F. 1978. Geschichte Des Arabischen Scrifttums, Vol. 6, Leiden.Google Scholar
  64. Al-Shīrāzī, Quṭb al-Dīn. Ikhtīyārāt-i Muẓaffarī. MS. Iran, National Library, no. 3074f.Google Scholar
  65. Al-Shīrāzī, Quṭb al-Dīn, Tuḥfa al-Shāhiyya. MS. Iran, Parliament Library, no. 6130.Google Scholar
  66. Simplicius. 1894. Simplicii in Aristotelis De Caelo Commentaria, ed. by I. L. Heiberg, Berlin.Google Scholar
  67. Steele, J. 2000. A re-analysis of the Eclipse observations in Ptolemy’s Almagest. Centaurus 42: 89–108.CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  68. Stephenson, F.R. 1997. Historical Eclipses and Earth’s Rotation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  69. Al-Ṣūfī, Abd al-Raḥmān. 1995. Al-‘amal bi-l-Aṣṭurlāb. Morocco: ISESCO.Google Scholar
  70. Suter, H. 1902. Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und Ihre Werke, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  71. Thurston, H. 1994. Early astronomy. London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Toomer, G.J. (ed.). 1998. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Princeton: Princeton University Press.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  73. Al-Ṭūsī, Naṣīr al-Dīn. Ilkhānī zīj. MS. C: California, no.; MS. T: Iran, University of Tehran, no. 165-Ḥikmat; MS. P: Iran, Parliament Library, no. 181; MS. M: Iran, Mashhad, Holy Shrine Library, no. 5332a.Google Scholar
  74. Ulugh Beg. Sulṭānī Zīj (or Gūrkānī Zīj), MS. T: Tehran University Central Library, no. 13J; MS. P1: Iran, Parliament Library, no. 72; MS P2: Iran, Parliament, Library, no. 6027.Google Scholar
  75. Voux, C. 1891. Remaniement des Spheriques de Theodes Par Iahia ibn Muhammed ibn Abi Shukr Almaghribi Alandalusi. Journal Asiatique 17: 287–295.Google Scholar
  76. Wābkanawī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad. Zīj-i muhaqqaq-i sulṭānī. MS. T: Turkey, Aya Sophia Library, No. 2694; MS. Y: Iran, Yazd, ‘Ulūmī Library, no. 546, its microfilm is available in Tehran University Central Library, no. 2546; MS. P: Iran, Parliament Library, no. 6435.Google Scholar
  77. Zotti, G., and S.M. Mozaffari. 2010. Ghāzān Khān’s astronomical instruments at Maragha Observatory. In Astronomy and its instruments before and after Galileo, ed. Luisa Pigatto, and Valeria Zanini, 157–168. Padova: Cooperativa Libraria Editrice Università di Padova (CLEUP).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM)MaraghaIran

Personalised recommendations