Heart and Vessels

, Volume 33, Issue 8, pp 931–938 | Cite as

Wave intensity as a useful modality for assessing ventilation–perfusion imbalance in subclinical patients with hypertension

  • Yoshie Nogami
  • Yoshihiro Seo
  • Masayoshi Yamamoto
  • Tomoko Ishizu
  • Kazutaka Aonuma
Original Article


Wave intensity (WI) is a novel noninvasive index of circulatory dynamics that reflects ventriculo-arterial coupling. It is calculated as the product of the first derivative of blood pressure and that of flow velocity measured by carotid echocardiography. This study aimed to clarify the clinical implications of WI and its relation with carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope). Twenty-one healthy volunteers (control group) and 21 patients with hypertension (HT group) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) and exercise stress echocardiography. WI was assessed in the right carotid artery using an ultrasound system. The first peak of WI (W1) during the early ejection phase was measured at baseline and mitral annular velocity was assessed by tissue Doppler imaging. Ventilatory kinetics during exercise was assessed using the relation of minute ventilation to VE/VCO2 slope. VE/VCO2 slope, W1, and E/E′ were greater in the HT group than in the control group. PeakVO2 and VO2 at the anaerobic threshold were lower in the HT group than in the control group. VE/VCO2 slope was significantly correlated with W1 (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) and E/E′ (r = 0.44, p < 0.01). Stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that W1 was an independent determinant of VE/VCO2 slope (β = 0.43, p < 0.01). In conclusion, W1 might be able to predict the severity of heart failure without the need for CPX. Moreover, WI may be a useful modality in assessing heart failure pathophysiology based on ventriculo-arterial coupling.


Wave intensity Carotid echocardiography Exercise capacity 



This study was supported by Professor Kiyomi Niki, Tokyo City University, and Motoaki Sugawara, Himeji Dokkyo University. The authors thank the technologists in the clinical laboratory at Tsukuba University Hospital for their help with the data collection.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest directly relevant to the content of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshie Nogami
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yoshihiro Seo
    • 2
  • Masayoshi Yamamoto
    • 2
  • Tomoko Ishizu
    • 2
  • Kazutaka Aonuma
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Human Environmental SciencesShonan Institute of TechnologyFujisawaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Cardiology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

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