The Visual Computer

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 371–383 | Cite as

Interactive directional subsurface scattering and transport of emergent light

  • Alessandro Dal CorsoEmail author
  • Jeppe Revall Frisvad
  • Jesper Mosegaard
  • J. Andreas Bærentzen
Original Article


Existing techniques for interactive rendering of deformable translucent objects can accurately compute diffuse but not directional subsurface scattering effects. It is currently a common practice to gain efficiency by storing maps of transmitted irradiance. This is, however, not efficient if we need to store elements of irradiance from specific directions. To include changes in subsurface scattering due to changes in the direction of the incident light, we instead sample incident radiance and store scattered radiosity. This enables us to accommodate not only the common distance-based analytical models for subsurface scattering but also directional models. In addition, our method enables easy extraction of virtual point lights for transporting emergent light to the rest of the scene. Our method requires neither preprocessing nor texture parameterization of the translucent objects. To build our maps of scattered radiosity, we progressively render the model from different directions using an importance sampling pattern based on the optical properties of the material. We obtain interactive frame rates, our subsurface scattering results are close to ground truth, and our technique is the first to include interactive transport of emergent light from deformable translucent objects.


Subsurface scattering Global illumination Interactive rendering Translucent objects Turbid media 



We would like to thank Christian Esbo Agergaard, Technical Director, Sunday Studios for the melting candle model. The Stanford Bunny and the Stanford Dragon models are courtesy of the Stanford University Computer Graphics Laboratory ( The HDR environment map in Fig. 15 is courtesy of Tobias Grønbeck Andersen.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Technical University of DenmarkKgs. LyngbyDenmark
  2. 2.The Alexandra InstituteAarhusDenmark

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