CaMV-35S promoter sequence-specific DNA methylation in lettuce
We found 35S promoter sequence-specific DNA methylation in lettuce. Additionally, transgenic lettuce plants having a modified 35S promoter lost methylation, suggesting the modified sequence is subjected to the methylation machinery.
We previously reported that cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter-specific DNA methylation in transgenic gentian (Gentiana triflora × G. scabra) plants occurs irrespective of the copy number and the genomic location of T-DNA, and causes strong gene silencing. To confirm whether 35S-specific methylation can occur in other plant species, transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants with a single copy of the 35S promoter-driven sGFP gene were produced and analyzed. Among 10 lines of transgenic plants, 3, 4, and 3 lines showed strong, weak, and no expression of sGFP mRNA, respectively. Bisulfite genomic sequencing of the 35S promoter region showed hypermethylation at CpG and CpWpG (where W is A or T) sites in 9 of 10 lines. Gentian-type de novo methylation pattern, consisting of methylated cytosines at CpHpH (where H is A, C, or T) sites, was also observed in the transgenic lettuce lines, suggesting that lettuce and gentian share similar methylation machinery. Four of five transgenic lettuce lines having a single copy of a modified 35S promoter, which was modified in the proposed core target of de novo methylation in gentian, exhibited 35S hypomethylation, indicating that the modified sequence may be the target of the 35S-specific methylation machinery.
KeywordsDNA methylation Lettuce 35S promoter Transgene silencing Gentian De novo methylation
Cauliflower mosaic virus
Synthetic green fluorescent protein
We thank Ms. Ayumi Sakei (Osaka Prefecture University) for technical assistance. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grant Number, 23780027) from The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.