FISH and GISH: molecular cytogenetic tools and their applications in ornamental plants
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The innovations in chromosome engineering have improved the efficiency of interrogation breeding, and the identification and transfer of resistance genes from alien to native species.
Recent advances in molecular biology and cytogenetics have brought revolutionary, conceptual developments in mitosis and meiosis research, chromosome structure and manipulation, gene expression and regulation, and gene silencing. Cytogenetic studies offer integrative tools for imaging, genetics, epigenetics, and cytological information that can be employed to enhance chromosome and molecular genomic research in plant taxa. In situ hybridization techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), can identify chromosome morphologies and sequences, amount and distribution of various types of chromatin in chromosomes, and genome organization during the metaphase stage of meiosis. Over the past few decades, various new molecular cytogenetic applications have been developed. The FISH and GISH techniques present an authentic model for analyzing the individual chromosome, chromosomal segments, or the genomes of natural and artificial hybrid plants. These have become the most reliable techniques for studying allopolyploids, because most cultivated plants have been developed through hybridization or polyploidization. Moreover, introgression of the genes and chromatin from the wild types into cultivated species can also be analyzed. Since hybrid derivatives may have variable alien chromosome numbers or chromosome arms, the use of these approaches opens new avenues for accurately identifying genome differences.
KeywordsBanding techniques Chromosome characterization In situ hybridization Physical mapping Polyploidization
This research was supported by Golden Seed Project (Center for Horticultural Seed Development, No. 213003-04-1-WTM11), Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA), Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF), Rural Development Administration (RDA) and Korea Forest Service (KFS).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests of this manuscript.
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