Climate-Smart Design for Ecosystem Management: A Test Application for Coral Reefs
- 3k Downloads
The interactive and cumulative impacts of climate change on natural resources such as coral reefs present numerous challenges for conservation planning and management. Climate change adaptation is complex due to climate-stressor interactions across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This leaves decision makers worldwide faced with local, regional, and global-scale threats to ecosystem processes and services, occurring over time frames that require both near-term and long-term planning. Thus there is a need for structured approaches to adaptation planning that integrate existing methods for vulnerability assessment with design and evaluation of effective adaptation responses. The Corals and Climate Adaptation Planning project of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force seeks to develop guidance for improving coral reef management through tailored application of a climate-smart approach. This approach is based on principles from a recently-published guide which provides a framework for adopting forward-looking goals, based on assessing vulnerabilities to climate change and applying a structured process to design effective adaptation strategies. Work presented in this paper includes: (1) examination of the climate-smart management cycle as it relates to coral reefs; (2) a compilation of adaptation strategies for coral reefs drawn from a comprehensive review of the literature; (3) in-depth demonstration of climate-smart design for place-based crafting of robust adaptation actions; and (4) feedback from stakeholders on the perceived usefulness of the approach. We conclude with a discussion of lessons-learned on integrating climate-smart design into real-world management planning processes and a call from stakeholders for an “adaptation design tool” that is now under development.
KeywordsClimate change Vulnerability Adaptation planning Natural resource management Coral reefs Decision making
Given increasingly abundant and compelling evidence for climate change impacts on coral reefs as well as many other ecosystems (Hughes et al. 2003; Parmesan and Galbraith 2004; Parmesan and Yohe 2003; Root et al. 2003; Walther 2010), there is wide recognition that natural resource management must integrate climate change impacts into planning processes in order to be effective (Dessai et al. 2009; Hughes et al. 2003). Many managers have begun to consider climate change in developing reef management strategies (Keener et al. 2012; Levy and Ban 2013; Marshall et al. 2009; The Nature Conservancy 2009, 2010). However, the process of developing and implementing meaningful climate change adaptation options can be challenging due to complexities associated with interactions among climate change and other stressors across multiple spatial and temporal scales; near- and long-term manifestation of impacts; complex time horizons associated with management actions (lead times, response times); multiple uses and ecosystem services; and the multiple management contexts within which the conservation planning takes place. This has led to adaptation planning lagging behind consideration of climate change impacts and vulnerability assessments (Johnson and Weaver 2009).
Managers are requesting tools that will help them in this endeavor. One tool is a recently-released Climate-Smart Conservation guide (Stein et al. 2014). Climate-smart planning provides a general approach for adopting “forward-looking goals” that consider natural resource vulnerabilities to climate change and a guided process to develop and implement strategies crafted to address those vulnerabilities. Using illustrative steps similar to any management planning approach (Conservation Measures Partnership 2013), the climate-smart planning cycle explicitly incorporates principles that are responsive to the challenges of climate change adaptation.
While useful as a key starting point, the climate-smart conservation planning cycle and associated principles are general. For successful application to any particular natural resource, the generalized approach must be interpreted within the context of the particular ecosystem being managed, leading to an array of system-relevant adaptation options that address core objectives. We have targeted coral reefs as one of the first ecosystems for such “tailoring” and application of a climate-smart approach for several reasons. Coral reefs are complex “charismatic” ecosystems valued for their high biodiversity and productivity, their economic importance both commercially and recreationally, and the myriad other ecosystem services they provide (Cesar et al. 2003; Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007; Hughes et al. 2003; Moberg and Folke 1999). Coral reef scientists and managers have long been aware of ongoing coral reef degradation that has been occurring for decades if not centuries (Pandolfi et al. 2003), largely as a result of ecological disruptions caused by human influences (Jackson et al. 2001, 2014). Climate change is also having substantial interactive and cumulative impacts on reef health and stability (Buddemeier et al. 2004; Mumby and Steneck 2008). Changes in the climate drivers of such impacts are already measurable—ocean temperatures are warmer (by an average of +0.7 °C), pH is lower (−0.1 units), and carbonate ion concentrations are lower (~30 mmol kg−1) now than over the geologic record of 420,000 years (Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). These changes have contributed to direct impacts such as increases in coral bleaching events (Bellwood et al. 2004; Brown 1997), reef dissolution along with reduced calcification and growth rates (Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007; Kuffner et al. 2013; Manzello et al. 2012; McLeod and Anthony 2012; Orr et al. 2005), and increased storm damage (Harmelin-Vivien 1994; Wilkinson and Souter 2008). Indirect effects include precipitation-driven changes in intensity and patterns of sediment and nutrient runoff that impair coral reef condition (Hughes et al. 2003; Richmond 1993), increased disease outbreaks (ICRI/UNEP-WCMC 2010; Work et al. 2012), and species range shifts that decouple ecological relationships (Greenstein 2006; Yamano et al. 2011).
The combination of high ecological and human-derived reef values, high levels of climate change impacts, and ongoing legacy of interactive human-induced threats make a compelling case for incorporation of effective climate-change adaptations into reef management plans. Threats to coral reefs due to climate change are substantial, and the future prognosis is poor if strong adaptation planning is not rapidly pursued (Buddemeier et al. 2004; Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority 2009; Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). Adaptation is critically important to buy time for species and ecosystems (Hansen and Hoffman 2011), but should be seen as nested within a larger context of policies and actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.
Despite the complexities, implementing climate change adaptations for coral reefs is not a futile endeavor. Coral reefs are not expected to inevitably disappear, but instead are likely to undergo substantial changes in species composition and community structure and function (Hughes et al. 2003). This expectation is based on a depth of adaptive capacity that is attributed to the diversity of corals and their symbionts (zooxanthellae), evidence for a range of responses to temperature and other stressors across these species, spatial and temporal variations in climate change, and the potential for human management (Berkelmans and van Oppen 2006; Buddemeier et al. 2004; Darling et al. 2013; Dixon et al. 2015; Guest et al. 2012). As a result, sufficiently extensive and well-conceived management of coral reefs aimed at increasing reef resilience could successfully preserve values and characteristics of coral reef ecosystems, even if there is uncertainty regarding the outlook for some ecosystem services over the long term (Hughes et al. 2003).
This paper presents initial results of the Corals and Climate Adaptation Planning (CCAP) project, which seeks to develop guidance for improving coral reef management through tailored application of the climate-smart approach. As a collaborative effort under the auspices of the Climate Change Working Group of the interagency U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, the CCAP project benefits from the expertise of a network of practitioners, managers and scientists from over a dozen Federal, State, and Territorial agencies, as well as local and national non-governmental organizations and academic institutions, to explore and test climate-smart adaptation planning principles specifically for coral reef management.
Project Approach and Initial Focus
The CCAP project began with an evaluation of how well each step of the climate-smart cycle (Fig. 1b) is currently supported by existing tools, approaches, and best practices specific to coral reef management, achieved through a comprehensive, but not necessarily exhaustive examination of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and grey literature. Pertinent literature was identified using relevant search terms in Google Scholar, Web of Science, and similar search engines. Representativeness of the literature obtained was assured by engaging a network of experts, who covered a broad range of technical expertise and geographic experience, to review our bibliography and provide additional sources, including case studies, management plans, and other unpublished information relevant to climate change adaptation in the context of coral reef management planning. Our experts network included climate scientists and coral reef and watershed scientists, managers, and practitioners knowledgeable of reef systems in the Caribbean, Hawaiian archipelago, Great Barrier Reef, and Pacific Island and Southeast Asian countries of the Coral Triangle region. In addition, the outputs of the project were guided and reviewed by the Project Technical Steering Committee under the Climate Change Working Group of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force. Resources were mapped to one or more steps of the climate-smart cycle in order to (1) confirm the applicability of the generalized cycle to similar steps in coral reef management efforts, and (2) assess the “state of the science” and availability of tools for each step, again specifically for coral reefs.
The CCAP project focused on filling this gap by building on one of the approaches for generating adaptation options presented in the Climate-Smart Conservation guide (West and Julius 2014), which in turn built on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program’s synthesis of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources (U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) 2008). The result is the CCAP Compendium (see next section; full Compendium available as Supplementary Online Material), a framework of general strategies, coral reef-specific options, and climate-smart design considerations that managers can use as a resource from which to jumpstart their climate change adaptation efforts. A key advancement is the inclusion of “climate-smart design considerations” that help managers to move from fairly generic adaptation options to actionable alternatives for a particular place and situation. These concepts are presented in greater detail in the sections that follow.
Building a Foundation: the CCAP Compendium
The CCAP Compendium (see Supplementary Online Material) is a resource for undertaking the identification of adaptation options for coral reef ecosystems. It includes seven general climate-smart adaptation strategies from the Climate-Smart Conservation guide (West and Julius 2014), which were developed to encourage a process of ecosystem-based “brainstorming” of options (Colls et al. 2009; Stein et al. 2014). Effective application is predicated on first demonstrating the relevancy and appropriateness of the general adaptation strategies for coral reefs, through the compilation of illustrative adaptation options for each strategy, and identification of climate-smart design considerations for each option.
Confirming Relevancy of General Adaptation Strategies
The relevancy and appropriateness to coral reef ecosystems of the general adaptation strategies described below was determined by: (1) exploring their meaning and intent in the context of coral reef ecosystems (as presented in the following subsections), and (2) comparing them to strategies reported in the literature and promoted within existing management practices for coral reefs (through tabular comparison). This literature-based assessment was reviewed and supplemented with additional inputs from our participating coral expert group; additional stakeholder feedback on the relevancy of the strategies included in the Compendium was obtained through its trial application at a broader-based workshop (see section below on Applying the CCAP Compendium for details).
Reducing non-climate stressors
This strategy focuses on minimizing local-scale human-generated stressors that hinder the ability of species or ecosystems to withstand or adjust to climate events. Stressor reduction is intended to enhance ecosystem resilience (Kareiva et al. 2008) and is a management strategy commonly applied to coral reefs (Burke et al. 2011; The Nature Conservancy 2015). More than 60 percent of the world’s reefs are under immediate and direct threat from local activities such as overfishing and destructive fishing, coastal development, watershed-based pollution, or marine-based pollution and damage (Burke et al. 2012; Fernandes et al. 2012; Jackson et al. 2014). Climate change exacerbates these local stressors and increases sensitivity to other stressors (McLeod et al. 2012; West and Julius 2014). Ocean acidification and coral bleaching from ocean warming reduce reef calcification and increase sensitivity to disease and other local threats (McLeod et al. 2012). Watershed-based nutrient pollution can also make reef species more susceptible to climate impacts by reducing bleaching thresholds (D’Angelo and Wiedenmann 2014) and increasing disease severity (Bruno et al. 2003). Because actions under this strategy are already widely used, extra emphasis needs to be placed on considering climate-smart design within existing management portfolios.
Protecting key ecosystem features
This concept addresses management of the structural characteristics, organisms, and areas that play a critical role in maintaining resilience in the current or future ecosystem of interest (West and Julius 2014). For instance, displacing or removing a population of keystone species usually results in the re-organization of the ecosystem and sometimes results in its collapse (Jackson et al. 2001; Keller et al. 2009). Marine protected areas are widely used for protecting key ecosystem features (Keller et al. 2009). Key functional groups such as herbivores are protected through catch and size restrictions to support reefs that are threatened by algal domination (Hawai’i Administrative Rules (HAR)) or recovering from disturbances such as hurricanes and coral bleaching events (Edwards et al. 2010). However this type of option is less frequently implemented than some research recommends (Bohnsack et al. 2000). While many coral reef bleaching response plans highlight the need for protection of herbivores, few managers have or use statutory authority to impose emergency rules that could place temporary restrictions on herbivore fishing. The impacts of climate change on life history and recruitment of keystone species and functional groups need to be evaluated in order to protect those features that can confer resilience to future changes.
Ensuring connectivity to facilitate movement of energy, nutrients, and organisms is a key aspect of maintaining ecosystem function that is highly relevant in the climate change context (Lindenmayer et al. 2008). As an adaptation strategy, incorporating physical connectivity supports genetic exchange among subpopulations of marine organisms, particularly at the spatial and temporal scales over which marine populations are connected by larval dispersal (Cowen et al. 2007; Cowen and Sponaugle 2009). The linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals as larvae, juveniles or adults, is a key factor to consider in marine reserve design, since it has important implications for the persistence of meta-populations and their recovery from disturbance (Green et al. 2014). The impacts of climate change on both the reefs that serve as sources of recruits and the ocean circulation that delivers the larvae needs to be considered in designing networks of marine protected areas (Fernandes et al. 2012).
Restoring ecosystem structure and function
Here the emphasis is on rebuilding, modifying, or transforming ecosystems that have been lost or compromised, in order to restore desired structures and functions (West and Julius 2014). Restoration can focus on restoring intact ecosystems or characteristic species complexes that are important to the resilience of the system (Kareiva et al. 2008). This is consistent with the common goal of supporting continuation of diverse and functioning ecosystems for sustainable use (Clean Water Act 1972; Glick et al. 2011). The existing species composition may not persist under a changing climate, but there is the potential to preserve key ecosystem services. Examples of management practices to restore ecosystem structure and function include restoring herbivorous fish and invertebrate populations, preventing and managing invasive species, controlling outbreaks of coral predators, and re-establishing source populations of corals. For instance, herbivores functionally contribute to reef recovery following disturbances such as hurricanes and coral bleaching events (Edwards et al. 2010). Conversely, invasive species proliferate from changes in ocean currents and increasing stress on reefs. This can transform marine habitats by displacing native species, changing community structure, and altering fundamental processes such as nutrient cycling and sedimentation (Molnar et al. 2008). Note that there is overlap among activities in this and several of the other strategies, especially protecting key ecosystem features.
This strategy involves identification and protection of areas less affected by or more resilient to climate change as sources of “seed” for recovery or as destinations for climate-sensitive migrants (West and Julius 2014). In coral reef ecosystems, refugia may be identified by coral species resistant to sea surface temperature anomalies and areas that support oceanographic and biogeochemical conditions that ameliorate the impacts of increased sea surface temperature, ocean acidification, and other impacts of climate change (Manzello et al. 2012; McClanahan et al. 2011; Storlazzi et al. 2013; van Hooidonk et al. 2013). Refugia may also be found in areas where the distribution of coral reefs is expanding or projected to expand poleward due to increasing sea surface temperatures (Baird et al. 2012). Such refugia need to be identified and incorporated into marine protected area design (Fernandes et al. 2012; Keller et al. 2009).
Relocating organisms refers to human-assisted transplantation or translocation of corals or other organisms from nurseries or other reefs to overcome environmental barriers and negative chemical cues that can impede recruitment. Establishing nurseries and transplanting corals with thermotolerant symbionts from the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf to reefs in the Indian Ocean could facilitate adaptation to the higher water temperatures expected in the future (D’Angelo et al. 2015). Negative chemical cues from degraded reefs with seaweeds may serve as barriers to recruitment, requiring transplantation of corals to provide positive chemical cues that attract recruits (Dixson et al. 2014). Climate-induced changes in currents and associated connectivity (refer to connectivity section for more detail) can also disrupt recruitment patterns and might necessitate “restocking” organisms to critical reefs that are now cut off. Transplantation as an adaptation strategy would also incorporate the emerging discussion and research on human-assisted evolution (see section below on Supporting Evolutionary Potential). Although early translocation attempts sometimes fell short of achieving desired objectives (Bentivoglio 2003), this strategy is now receiving more attention.
Supporting evolutionary potential
This concept centers on protecting a variety of species, populations, and systems in multiple places to hedge against losses from climate disturbances, and managing these systems to assist positive evolutionary change (West and Julius 2014). The concept of “risk spreading” is central to climate change adaptation. It can be captured through representation by different forms of species, ecosystems, or habitats (Kareiva et al. 2008), essentially preserving existing diversity at multiple levels (genetic, organismic, etc.). It is also captured through replication—preservation of multiple examples of habitats, populations, or ecosystems (Kareiva et al. 2008), in this case to address climate change risks and support positive biological adaptation. In coral reef ecosystems, representation and replication of habitat types through networks of marine protected areas spreads risk in the face of uncertainties (Fernandes et al. 2012; Kareiva et al. 2008) and maintains genetic diversity that provides the raw material for evolutionary change (Kareiva et al. 2008; West and Julius 2014). Populations in different locations may contain distinct genetic mixes that represent adaptation to different sets of local conditions. Genetic diversity in corals and their symbionts may reduce bleaching and prevent reef collapse (Barshis et al. 2013; Baskett et al. 2009), and some research suggests evolutionary adaptation is already occurring (Logan et al. 2014). Proposed assisted evolution approaches such as inducing acclimatization, modifying microbial symbiont communities, and selective breeding (van Oppen et al. 2015) are very new approaches to identify and propagate species with climate-resistant genetic variants and intra-generational acclimatization in much the same way as plants are bred for resistance or tolerance to climate and pests. Sometimes using these techniques may require human-assisted relocation/transplantation (see section above on Relocating Organisms). Given the very recent and evolving experience with such “assisted” techniques, additional research will provide insights into their feasibility and potential impacts.
Comparison of general adaptation strategies
Coral reef specific strategies for multiple conservation objectives (Fernandes et al. 2012)
Coral reef specific strategies for multiple conservation objectives (The Nature Conservancy 2015)
A. Reduce non-climate stresses
• Threat reduction
• Manage local stressors
• Reduce land-based impacts
• Manage fisheries
B. Protect key ecosystem features
• Protect critical areas
• Establish marine protected areas
C. Ensure connectivity
• Incorporate connectivity
• Establish marine protected areas networks
D. Restore structure and function
• Sustainable use
• Facilitate passive restoration
• Manage for social resilience
E. Protect refugia
• Protect critical areas
• Manage for ocean acidification
F. Relocate organisms
• Conduct active restoration
G. Support evolutionary potential
• Risk spreading
• Establish marine protected areas networks
Based on this review and stakeholder feedback, the Compendium (see Supplementary Online Material) maintains the seven general adaptation strategies as a relevant and useful framework for identifying adaptation options for coral reef ecosystems. It is not expected that all seven strategies will be explicitly included in each and every site-specific plan. Rather, they are intended to serve as a framework for brainstorming potential new adaptation options to fill gaps, or to refine management goals and objectives and refocus management efforts with a forward-looking, climate change perspective. To the extent that some potential climate change adaptation strategies may not be perceived as fitting well into one of these seven categories, such as shading of corals for temperature mitigation (Rau et al. 2012), it must be emphasized that the value of the Compendium and its structure of seven ecologically oriented strategies is in its potential to stimulate the brainstorming process, and should not constrain the possible inclusion of novel approaches. In reflecting an ecosystem-based approach to adaptation, it also incorporates traditional conservation strategies, such as reducing non-climate stressors. However, it becomes clear that especially the more forward-thinking ecological strategies (e.g., restoring ecosystem structure and function, supporting evolutionary potential, protecting refugia, and relocation) should be further refined with an explicit climate-change focus. Finally, the strategies are not mutually exclusive and may be used in combination.
Compiling Adaptation Options for Coral Reefs
Excerpt from the CCAP compendium showing selected general adaptation strategies, adaptation options, and design considerations (see Supplementary Online Material for full list)
General adaptation strategies and adaptation options
Climate-smart design considerations
A. Reduce Non-Climate Stresses
Minimize localized human stressors (e.g., pollution, fishing pressure) that hinder the ability of species or ecosystems to withstand or adjust to climatic events
i. Minimize land-based pollution due to excessive loadings of suspended sediments and nutrients from agriculture, deforestation, urbanization, and other land uses
• How will climate change-related shifts in precipitation patterns and hydrology affect runoff of sediments and nutrients from different land use types to coastal waters?
• How and in what locations could the protection or restoration of forests and/or wetlands, the management of agricultural areas and/or roads, or the installation of land-based pollution controls be focused to minimize runoff to coastal waters?
• How will any such pollution control installations have to be designed (including size, structural characteristics) and located to both accommodate projected sediment or nutrient runoff loads and also withstand the direct physical climate change impacts of larger, more intense storms, greater erosion, etc.?
B. Protect Key Ecosystem Features
Focus management on structural characteristics (e.g., geophysical stage), organisms, or areas (e.g., spawning sites) that represent important “underpinnings” or “keystones” of the current or future system of interest
i. Manage functional species and groups necessary for maintaining the health of reefs and other ecosystems
• What is the vulnerability of functional species and groups (e.g., herbivores, apex predators) to the interaction of climate change with other human and natural stressors, and in what locations are they most vulnerable?
• What management options can be employed, and in which locations, to minimize impacts on the most vulnerable species and groups?
C. Ensure Connectivity
Protect and restore habitats that facilitate movement of organisms (and gene flow) among resource patches
i. Identify and manage networks of resilient reefs connected by currents
• Which areas have demonstrated resistance to/or recovery from exposure to climate change impacts?
• Which areas are projected to have less exposure to climate change impacts (e.g., increased sea surface temperatures, decreased ocean pH) and could therefore serve as refugia?
• How will climate change affect currents that provide connectivity between resilient areas?
• What are the implications of this information for design of managed area networks to maximize connectivity and maintain it into the future?
The process of compiling and binning adaptation options represents Step 4 of the Climate-Smart Cycle and is intended to support “brainstorming” on the part of managers as they review (or develop new) management plans and revise them to be climate-smart. Our literature review resulted in three to eight adaptation options identified for each strategy. Some options could be categorized under more than one strategy, i.e., the strategies are not mutually exclusive. This provides a beneficial degree of overlap and redundancy, to ensure that all options are captured from a variety of strategy angles.
In the first example (Table 2), the option under Reduce Non-Climate Stresses, “minimize land-based pollution”, came up in many coral reef management references. Options dealing with other anthropogenic stressors such as fishing pressure, shoreline hardening structures, direct habitat destruction, and non-land based pollutant discharges were also identified. The range of familiar options included under this strategy (see the full Compendium in the Supplementary Online Material) reflects the long history of coral reef management activities that have focused on pollution reduction, even prior to the addition of climate change as a management concern.
In the second example (Table 2), options such as this one under Protect Key Ecosystem Features, “manage functional species and groups”, are diverse. This one addresses protection of functional groups that are key within the coral reef ecosystem. But this strategy also includes options that address components outside of—but functionally linked to—the coral reef system (e.g., wetlands/mangroves, seagrass beds, etc.). It encompasses protection or management of unique areas, sites specific to life cycle functions, critical habitat for threatened or endangered species, or areas of high diversity.
The third example, under Ensure Connectivity, “identify and manage networks of resilient reefs”, recognizes the ecological connections among reef patches that can be important to the flow of organisms for recruitment and gene flow. The example option represents one possible component of protecting such connectivity into the future by identifying networks of resilient reefs. Other options under this strategy include identifying ecological connections among areas, or protecting up-current reefs as potential sources of organisms and propagules. Protection of different types of habitat diversity (e.g., including protection of multiple habitat types, reef areas of different sizes and shapes, etc.) is another theme incorporated in the options aimed at preserving ecological connectivity. Options in this strategy have some overlap with other strategies. For example, the protection of habitat areas critical as source populations can also represent the preservation of key ecosystem features, or support of evolutionary potential.
Developing Climate-Smart Design Considerations
How will climate change directly or indirectly affect how stressors impact the system, including through effects on stressor interactions?
What are the implications of this information for the location, timing, or engineering design of management actions?
The Compendium provides examples of climate-smart design considerations in both categories, to focus refinement of adaptation options to account for future as well as current conditions and make explicit links to climate-related impacts and vulnerabilities (Table 2; see Supplementary Online Material for full list). A management action designed to reduce land-based pollution from agriculture needs to account for both historical conditions in precipitation and hydrology and future conditions that will result from climate change. Projected changes in the distribution and intensity of rainfall may require updated design specifications to enable more stringent pollution control and forest and wetland management practices. An understanding of the impacts of climate change on the life history and vulnerability of herbivore species is needed to design management actions to protect this key ecosystem feature now and in the future. Climate change may result in changes in ocean currents that could affect recruitment and connectivity. The design of marine protected area networks needs to incorporate consideration of future oceanographic conditions to facilitate gene flow and habitat connectivity.
The example adaptation options and climate-smart design considerations in the Compendium are meant to be illustrative rather than comprehensive and to stimulate thinking about site-relevant possibilities. As new research and practices emerge, the range of examples will continue to grow, and the Compendium will need to be reviewed and updated over time.
Applying the CCAP Compendium
Integral to the development of the CCAP Compendium and the process of using it is recognition that many coral reef areas have conservation plans already in place or under development, reflecting varying degrees of thought about possible climate change impacts. Accordingly, the Compendium is designed so it can be referenced during the revision of existing plans, but is equally applicable in a de novo planning process.
Examples from the stakeholder workshop, based on a case study using West Maui management plans
Climate-smart design consideration
Install water bars, terraces, and microbasins in dirt roads in agricultural areas
How will increasingly severe storms affect the volume of runoff onto the near shore coral reef? How can the design be adjusted to account for these effects?
Install terraces adjacent to dirt roads in agricultural areas to reduce sediment/nutrient loads by x and y percent
How will increasingly severe storm events, in combination with increasingly frequent dry periods, affect the volume of runoff onto the near shore coral reef? What will be the spatial pattern of these effects with respect to the location of dirt roads in agricultural areas? How will the design of terraces need to be adjusted to: place them at locations of worst erosion; ensure their capacity to effectively reduce sediment/nutrient loads by x and y percent; and account for how maintenance and replacement schedules would need to change?
Protect and manage adjacent (Olowalu) coral reef areas that are connected hydrodynamically and can serve as recruitment sources for coral reefs in West Maui
How will climate change affect connectivity of downstream reefs to Olowalu areas that are recruitment sources? How will climate change affect stressors to be managed in Olowalu areas (pollution, bleaching, disease, reduced calcification)? What are the implications of this for how we prioritize, replicate, represent and increase level of protection of Olowalu areas, possibly at a greater scale?
Vulnerability Exercise for Stakeholder Workshop
Since information on climate impacts and vulnerabilities is one of the inputs needed in Step 4 of the climate-smart cycle, a desktop vulnerability assessment was developed as a resource for the participants. While there are many methodologies that could be chosen to complete a vulnerability assessment for a site, for illustrative purposes we used the LEAP guide: “Climate Change Adaptation for Coral Triangle Communities: A Guide for Vulnerability Assessment and Local Early Action Planning” (U.S. Coral Triangle Initiative Support Program, 2013). The LEAP method was applied to develop a vulnerability assessment based on climate information and projections for the main Hawaiian archipelago and information on threats to reefs in the watershed management and conservation action plans for West Maui. This desktop assessment was provided and used hand in hand with the CCAP Compendium at the workshop.
Participant feedback indicated that using the Compendium encouraged practitioners to clarify options, making them more specific in terms of intended action and more clearly related to their target stressors. Action #1, the installation of water bars, terraces, and microbasins, was considered important but was found to be too general for discussion because the action included several components (water bars, terraces, etc.) that would have climate-smart design considerations. As a result, the action was refined to focus only on terraces, and the other techniques would each be assessed separately as additional actions. The iterative process of considering the action, and then its design considerations, led stakeholders to modify and refine the design considerations, including incorporation of more specific climate change impacts that would affect the target stressor and various temporal considerations such as how the life cycle of the action compares to the timing of climate change effects.
In the case of Action #2, the workshop participants could see the value of adding this new option, which was focused on preserving connectivity. Through review of the Compendium examples and comparison to issues characterized for the West Maui reefs and to actions already included in their existing management plans, they concurred that this option addressed gaps in their plan. This new option resulted in expanding the geographic scope of the management area to an adjacent reef (Olowalu) deemed important as a source of coral recruitment to downstream reefs of West Maui. This also led to considerable refinement of the design considerations to reflect this specificity of reef type and place.
Overall, participants in the Honolulu workshop thought applying the Climate-Smart Cycle to coral reefs was valuable. There was also an emerging appreciation for how developing outputs in Step 4 often led to recognizing needs for additional, more detailed, or more clear information from previous steps, reinforcing the iterative nature of the process. The Compendium was considered a rich resource for adaptation ideas. There was particular interest in the concept of climate-smart design considerations, which promotes the idea that rigorous adaptation must be specifically linked to the when, where, and design of an option. Only by considering climate-smart design can managers develop options that address specific place-based information on the combination of climate change with other stressor impacts. By delving into the West Maui example, participants found that it wasn’t necessarily easy to develop meaningful design considerations, but it was essential.
Discussion and Conclusions
Building on the climate-smart conservation cycle and general adaptation strategies of Stein et al. (2014), a new tool, the CCAP Compendium, was developed to advance the ability of coral reef managers to integrate climate change thinking into management planning and facilitate effective implementation of climate change adaptations for coral reefs. The Compendium provides a framework and guiding examples of coral-reef specific adaptation options to help reef managers refine existing or develop new adaptation options within the context of their ongoing management planning processes. The formulation of climate-smart design considerations for each option establishes a thought process that explicitly links climate change impacts to coral reef management. This creates a bridge for managers to move from a “business as usual” or “more is better” design of management actions, to revision of actions so their designs accommodate a range of plausible future conditions of the reef driven by climate change.
As a new instrument for implementing Step 4 of the Climate-Smart Cycle (Fig. 2), a step which has heretofore received little operational attention, use of the Compendium, including development and application of climate-smart design considerations, requires inputs from earlier climate-smart planning steps. Decision makers engaged in defining the planning purpose and objectives (Step 1) and assessing climate change impacts and vulnerabilities (Step 2) have numerous tools and processes to help them accomplish these steps (e.g., Dubois et al. (2011); Gitay et al. (2011); Glick et al. (2011); Strange et al. (2012); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2012a, b)). The Compendium tool and process presented here integrates with and utilizes outputs from these existing tools, extending their value to managers and decision-makers.
Limitations of this tool for coral reefs include the current lack of research and development of techniques for less widely applied strategies, such as Supporting Evolutionary Potential or Relocating Organisms. As previously noted, this highlights the need for review and expansion of the Compendium as additional research and new information become available. Similarly, as practical applications of the Compendium and framework expand, the management experience gained will provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of—and improvements needed in—adaptation design. The application of this framework also assumes a relatively structured planning and decision-making process that includes the development of site- and resource-specific climate change vulnerability information. We recognize that commonly occurring limitations in resources, such as time and funding for management planning, can constrain the level at which inputs needed for the application of this framework can be developed. That said, the Compendium provides a clear starting point, thought process, and scientific basis for proceeding with climate-smart design using the best currently-available information, while also recognizing the need for future expansion and improvement as new knowledge becomes available.
Uncertainty and variability in projections of future climate conditions are realities that must be embraced in our planning framework in order to understand and manage risks as part of designing and selecting adaptation strategies (Dessai et al. 2009; Hoffman et al. 2014; Hulme et al. 2009; Johnson and Weaver 2009). To the extent possible, it is desirable to formulate actions that are robust to addressing uncertainty, e.g., that can be successful under a wide variety of climate changes (Brown 2011; Kareiva et al. 2008). Being “climate-smart” involves asking the key questions (design considerations) about the impacts of climate change that are of particular concern relative to existing conditions of the target reef and the management options being considered. By asking these questions, a clearer picture forms of gaps in the information needed to characterize climate change threats particular to the reef being managed. Once this information is obtained, insights emerge as to whether the options under consideration can accommodate that level of threat and reduce risks, and what modifications (e.g., in design, placement, timing, etc.) will be needed to do so effectively. In particular, looping back to Step 2 (Fig. 4) in order to develop more specific types and scales of climate vulnerability information provides the opportunity for the iterative process of making coral reef management climate-smart. It is recognized that much of the uncertainty in climate projections is irreducible (Pruyt 2007). Thus it is the range of climate projections relevant to the management options being evaluated that are used to judge and improve the robustness of the adaptations being considered, while at the same time clearly defining assumptions and risks when using the best available data. Development of robust, climate-smart adaptation options may come at a cost, and may even be prohibitive or infeasible, but the information gathered in this iterative CCAP framework becomes a foundation for addressing such evaluation and selection criteria in subsequent planning steps (Fig. 4, Step 5). Further, the information can immediately begin to inform any periodic adaptive management process or planning cycle (e.g., watershed planning) where climate change may not have been a focus in the past, but is now identified as a priority issue to consider in planning.
The overall goal of Step 4 is to be able to develop and carry forward an expanded list of candidate climate-smart adaptation actions for evaluation and priority selection (Step 5, Fig. 4) and ultimately implementation (Step 6). The climate-smart design considerations formulated for each candidate adaptation option contribute to this goal directly by guiding the revision of options so they more effectively reduce climate change impacts and better withstand the direct impacts of climate changes that are anticipated for a site. In doing so, addressing the climate-smart design questions also provides information relevant to many common evaluation criteria (for example, effectiveness, feasibility, ability to fulfill management objectives). Thus evaluation and selection of actions should be done only after climate-smart design questions have been addressed. Stakeholders at the Honolulu workshop recognized the value of the climate-smart design considerations as a mechanism for linking site-specific climate vulnerabilities to the design of adaptation options for the targeted site considering the suite of human stressors and uses on the site. They also recognized that the process is complex and articulated the need for a more explicit, step-by-step guided process for answering, or “unpacking” the questions once formulated. Ongoing efforts of the CCAP project are to develop this process and an associated tool to aid in the unpacking of climate-smart design considerations.
The Climate-Smart Conservation guide (Stein et al. 2014) sets forth key characteristics and themes, a planning cycle, and general adaptation strategies that could be applied to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Step 4 of the cycle served as a useful entry point to apply the use of this framework to a specific ecosystem—coral reefs. The general adaptation strategies (West and Julius 2014) serve as a robust framework for coral reef systems to identify gaps in existing management plans for climate-smart adaptation. The process of developing climate-smart design considerations highlights uncertainties that might lead to revisiting steps in the climate-smart cycle and refining actions to better manage risks under future conditions. Overall, the insights gained through this coral reef-specific application of the climate-smart conservation framework illustrate its applicability and relevance to resource management in general.
This research was funded by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contract EP-C-12-060, with travel and workshop contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Coral Reef Conservation Program and the Department of the Interior’s Office of Insular Affairs. We gratefully acknowledge the constructive feedback offered on an earlier draft by P. Bradley, H. Slay, and R. Coffey. Special thanks to E. Conklin, M. Eakin, and R. Kosaki for expert technical advice early in the project, and to W. Wiltse, H. Slay, T. Callender, E. Anders, T. Leberer, and R. Parsons for key contributions to workshop planning and participation. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or Department of the Interior.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bentivoglio A (2003) Compensatory mitigation for coral reef impacts in the Pacific Islands. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
- Berkelmans R., van Oppen MJH (2006). The role of zooxanthellae in the thermal tolerance of corals: a ‘nugget of hope’ for coral reefs in an era of climate change. P Roy Soc B 273(1599):2305–2312.doi: 10.1098/rspb.2006.3567
- Bohnsack JA, Causey B, Crosby MP, Hixon MA, Hourigan TF, Koltes KH, … Tilmant JT (2000). A rationale for 20-30% no-take protection. Paper presented at the Proceedings 9th International Coral reef Symposium, Bali, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
- Brown C (2011) Decision-scaling for Robust Planning and Policy under Climate Uncertainty. World Resources Report, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- Buddemeier RW, Kleypas JA, Aronson RA (2004). Coral reefs & climate change: potential contributions of climate change to stresses on coral reef ecosystems. Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, 56Google Scholar
- Burke L, Reytar K, Spalding M, Perry A (2011) Reefs at risk revisited. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., p 114Google Scholar
- Burke L, Reytar K, Spalding M, Perry A (2012) Reefs at risk revisited in the coral triangle. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, p 72Google Scholar
- Cesar HJS, Burke L, Pet-Soede L (2003) The economics of worldwide coral reef degradation. Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting, Arnhem, and WWF-Netherlands, Zeist, The Netherlands, p 23Google Scholar
- Clean Water Act (1972) 33 USC § 1251 et seq. 1972. Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972Google Scholar
- Colls A, Ash N, Ikkala N (2009) Ecosystem-based adaptation: A natural response to climate change. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, p 16Google Scholar
- Conservation Measures Partnership (2013) Open standards for the practice of conservation, Version 3. Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.conservationmeasures.org, pp 51
- D’Angelo C, Hume BCC, Burt J, Smith EG, Achterberg EP, Wiedenmann J (2015) Local adaptation constrains the distribution potential of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium from the Persian/Arabian Gulf. ISME Journal 9:2551–2560. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2015.80
- Dubois N, Caldas A, Boshoven J, Delach A (2011) Integrating climate change vulnerability assessments into adaptation planning: A case study using the natureserve climate change vulnerability index to inform conservation planning for species in Florida. Defenders of Wildlife, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- Edwards HJ, Elliott IA, Eakin CM, Irikawa A, Madom JS, McField M, Morgan JA, Van Woesik R, Mumby PJ (2010) How much time can herbivore protection buy for coral reefs under realistic regimes of hurricanes and coral bleaching? Glob Change Biol 17(6):2033–2048. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02366.x
- Fernandes L, Green A, Tanzer J, White A, Alino PM, Jompa J, … Pressey B (2012) Biophysical principles for designing resilient networks of marine protected areas to integrate fisheries, biodiversity and climate change objectives in the Coral Triangle. Report prepared by The Nature Conservancy for the Coral Triangle Support Partnership. 152Google Scholar
- Folke C, Carpenter S, Elmqvist T, Gunderson L, Holling CS, Walker B, … Svedin U (2002) Resilience and sustainable development: Building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. scientific background paper on resilience for the process of the world summit on sustainable development on behalf of the environmental advisory council to the Swedish government. Ministry of the Environment, Sweden, pp 74Google Scholar
- Gitay H, Finlayson CM, Davidson NC (2011) A framework for assessing the vulnerability of wetlands to climate change. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland, Switzerland & Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Canada, Ramsar Technical Report No. 5/CBD Technical Series No. 57Google Scholar
- Glick P, Stein BA, Edelson NA (2011) Scanning the conservation horizon: A guide to climate change vulnerability assessment. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2009) Great barrier reef outlook report 2009. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville Queensland, Australia, pp 212Google Scholar
- Green A, Maypa A, Almany G, Rhodes K, Weeks R, Abesamis R, … White A (2014) Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design. Biological Reviews, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/brv.12155
- Harmelin-Vivien MLT (1994) The effects of storms and cyclones on coral reefs: A review. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 12: 211–231Google Scholar
- Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, The Nature Conservancy, National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Conservation Program, Coral Reef Alliance, West Maui Ridge to Reef, & U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). Wahikuli-Honokowai Coastal: Conservation Action PlanGoogle Scholar
- Hoffman J, Rowland E, Hawkins Hoffman C, West J, Herrod-Julius S, Hayes M (2014) Managing under uncertainty. In: Stein BA, Edelson N, Staud A (eds) Climate-smart conservation: putting adaptation principles into practice. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Hulme M, Pielke R Jr, and Dessai S (2009) Keeping prediction in perspective. Nature reports climate change, doi:10.1038/climate.2009.110. http://www.nature.com/climate/2009/0911/full/climate.2009.110.html
- ICRI/UNEP-WCMC (2010) Disease in tropical coral reef ecosystems: ICRI key messages on coral disease. p 11Google Scholar
- Jackson JBC, Donovan MK, Cramer KL, Lam VV (2014) Status and trends of Caribbean coral reefs: 1970–2012. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, IUCN, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- Julius SH, West JM, Blate GM, Baron JS, Griffith B, Joyce LA, Scott JM (2008) Executive summary. In: Julius SH, West JM (eds) Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, p 1–1. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Researchto 1–6Google Scholar
- Kareiva P, Enquist C, Johnson A, Julius SH, Lawler J, Petersen B, West JM (2008) Synthesis and Conclusions. In: Julius SH, West JM (eds) Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, p 9–1. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, J.S. Baron, B. Griffith, L.A. Joyce, P. Kareiva, B.D. Keller, M.A. Palmer, C.H. Peterson, and J.M. Scott (Authors)]to 9–66Google Scholar
- Keener VW, Marra JJ, Finucane ML, Spooner D, Smith MH (eds) (2012) Climate change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and impacts. Island Press, Washington, DC, Report for the 2012 Pacific Islands Regional Climate AssessmentGoogle Scholar
- Keller BD, Gleason DF, McLeod E, Woodley CM, Airame’ S, Causey BD, … Steneck RS (2009). Climate change, coral reef ecosystems, and management options for marine protected areas. Environ Manage. doi: 10.1007/s00267-009-9346-0
- Marshall NA, Marshall PA, Tamelander J, Obura D, Malleret-King D, Cinner JE (2009) A framework for social adaptation to climate change; sustaining tropical coastal communities and industries. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, pp v + 36Google Scholar
- McLeod E, Anthony KRN (2012) Ocean acidification - management. Berkshire Publishing Group (Vol. 5). Awiti, Alex O. Aga Khan University, Nairobi, Kenya. www.berkshirepublishing.com
- McLeod K, Lubchenco J, Palumbi S, Rosenberg A (2005) Scientific consensus statement on marine ecosystem-based managementGoogle Scholar
- Parmesan C, Galbraith H (2004) Observed Impacts of global climate change in the U.S p 67Google Scholar
- Pruyt E (2007, July 29-August 2, 2007). Dealing with Uncertainties? Combining System Dynamics with Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis or with Exploratory Modelling. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference of the System Dynamics SocietyGoogle Scholar
- Stein BA, Glick P, Edelson NA, Staudt A (2014) Climate-smart conservation: Putting adaptation principles into practiceGoogle Scholar
- Storlazzi CD, Field ME, Presto MK, Cheriton OM, Logan JB (2013) Rapid fluctuations in flow and water-column properties in Asan Bay, Guam: implications for selective resilience of coral reefs in warming seas. Coral Reefs. doi: 10.1007/s00338-013-1061-x
- Strange E, Lipton J, Lefer M, Henderson J, Hazen J (2012) A framework to assess the relative vulnerability of aquatic ecosystem services to global stressors. Stratus Consulting, Boulder, COGoogle Scholar
- Sustainable Resources Group Intnl, Inc (2012) Wahikuli-Honokōwai Watershed Management Plan. Volume 1: Watershed CharacterizationGoogle Scholar
- The Nature Conservancy (2009). Conservation action planning guidelines for developing strategies in the face of climate change. The Natural Conservancy, p 26Google Scholar
- The Nature Conservancy (2010). Climate change action plan for the florida reef system 2010 – 2015 (pp. 20)Google Scholar
- The Nature Conservancy (2015). Reef Resilience: Coral Reef Module from http://www.reefresilience.org/coral-reefs/management-strategies/
- U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) (2008). Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources. A report by the U.S. climate change science program and the subcommittee on global change research. Julius SH, West JM (eds), J.S. Baron, B. Griffith, L.A. Joyce, P. Kareiva, B.D. Keller, M.A. Palmer, C.H. Peterson, and J.M. Scott (Authors)]. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Coral Triangle Initiative Support Program (2013) Climate Change Adaptation for Coral Triangle Communities: Guide for Vulnerability Assessment and Local Early Action Planning (LEAP Guide). Prepared with support from the United States Agency for International DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2012a) Vulnerability assessments in support of the climate ready estuaries program: A novel approach using expert judgment, volume I: Results for the San Francisco Estuary partnership. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2012b) Vulnerability Assessments in Support of the Climate Ready Estuaries Program: A Novel Approach Using Expert Judgment, Volume II: Results for the Massachusetts Bays Program. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2011). Taking Steps toward Marine and Coastal Ecosystem-Based Management - An Introductory Guide. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 189Google Scholar
- van Hooidonk R, Maynard JA, Planes S (2013) Temporary refugia for coral reefs in a warming world. Nat Clim Change. doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1829
- West JM, Julius SH (2014) The art of the possible: Identifying adaptation options. In: Stein BA, Glick P, Edelson N, Staud A (eds) Climate-smart conservation: Putting adaptation principles into practice. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Wilkinson C, Souter D (2008) Status of Caribbean coral reefs after bleaching and hurricanes in 2005. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, p 152Google Scholar
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.