A novel glycoprotein obtained from Chlorella vulgaris strain CK22 shows antimetastatic immunopotentiation
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A glycoprotein extract (CVS), derived from the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris, strain CK22, exhibited a pronounced antitumor effect against both spontaneous and experimentally induced metastasis in mice. Inhibition of tumor metastasis was enhanced when intratumor administration of CVS was followed by s.c. injection of CVS. Anti-metastatic immunopotentiation was observed in euthymic mice, but not in athymic nude mice. The antitumor activity of CVS was reflected in antigen-specific, T-cell-mediated immunity. Both CD4 and CD8 T cells contributed to the antimetastatic effects, as shown by in vivo depletion experiments with anti-T-cell subset antibodies. Furthermore, CVS caused the recruitment of T cells to the regional lymph nodes and their proliferation in these organs. The CD4-positive population, following CVS injection at the time of tumor rechallenge, displayed a pronounced increase in the proportion of T cells that were CD18 bright, CD44 bright, CD25+, CD54+, CD69+ or CD71+ in the lymph nodes. Thus, CVS induces T cell activation in peripheral lymph nodes in tumor-bearing mice. We conclude that CVS augments antimetastatic immunity through T cell activation in lymphoid organs and enhances recruitment of these cells to the tumor sites. Presurgical treatment with CVS might prevent metastasis or tumor progression.
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