Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 232, Issue 11, pp 3475–3488

Reaction time in ankle movements: a diffusion model analysis

Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00221-014-4032-8

Cite this article as:
Michmizos, K.P. & Krebs, H.I. Exp Brain Res (2014) 232: 3475. doi:10.1007/s00221-014-4032-8


Reaction time (RT) is one of the most commonly used measures of neurological function and dysfunction. Despite the extensive studies on it, no study has ever examined the RT in the ankle. Twenty-two subjects were recruited to perform simple, 2- and 4-choice RT tasks by visually guiding a cursor inside a rectangular target with their ankle. RT did not change with spatial accuracy constraints imposed by different target widths in the direction of the movement. RT increased as a linear function of potential target stimuli, as would be predicted by Hick–Hyman law. Although the slopes of the regressions were similar, the intercept in dorsal–plantar (DP) direction was significantly smaller than the intercept in inversion–eversion (IE) direction. To explain this difference, we used a hierarchical Bayesian estimation of the Ratcliff’s (Psychol Rev 85:59, 1978) diffusion model parameters and divided processing time into cognitive components. The model gave a good account of RTs, their distribution and accuracy values, and hence provided a testimony that the non-decision processing time (overlap of posterior distributions between DP and IE < 0.045), the boundary separation (overlap of the posterior distributions < 0.1) and the evidence accumulation rate (overlap of the posterior distributions < 0.01) components of the RT accounted for the intercept difference between DP and IE. The model also proposed that there was no systematic change in non-decision processing time or drift rate when spatial accuracy constraints were altered. The results were in agreement with the memory drum hypothesis and could be further justified neurophysiologically by the larger innervation of the muscles controlling DP movements. This study might contribute to assessing deficits in sensorimotor control of the ankle and enlighten a possible target for correction in the framework of our on-going effort to develop robotic therapeutic interventions to the ankle of children with cerebral palsy.


Hick–Hyman law Reaction time Speed–accuracy tradeoff Ankle Kinematic analysis Sensorimotor control 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konstantinos P. Michmizos
    • 1
  • Hermano Igo Krebs
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Division of Rehabilitative Medicine, Department of NeurologyUniversity of Maryland, School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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