Comparative study of endophytic and endophytic diazotrophic bacterial communities across rice landraces grown in the highlands of northern Thailand
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Communities of bacterial endophytes within the rice landraces cultivated in the highlands of northern Thailand were studied using fingerprinting data of 16S rRNA and nifH genes profiling by polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The bacterial communities’ richness, diversity index, evenness, and stability were varied depending on the plant tissues, stages of growth, and rice cultivars. These indices for the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria within the landrace rice Bue Wah Bo were significantly the lowest. The endophytic bacteria revealed greater diversity by cluster analysis with seven clusters compared to the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria (three clusters). Principal component analysis suggested that the endophytic bacteria showed that the community structures across the rice landraces had a higher stability than those of the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Uncultured bacteria were found dominantly in both bacterial communities, while higher generic varieties were observed in the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial community. These differences in bacterial communities might be influenced either by genetic variation in the rice landraces or the rice cultivation system, where the nitrogen input affects the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial community.
KeywordsBacterial community Bacterial endophytes 16S rRNA gene nifH gene Cluster analysis Principal component analysis
The authors would like to acknowledge the supports from Office of the Higher Education Commission, Thailand under the National Research University Project, the Graduated School of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand and Thailand Research Fund RTA5580007. We also thank the Model Farm Project, the Royal Initiatives of Her Majesty the Queen, Khun Tae Village, Thailand for assistance in rice samples collection and Mr. Chainarong Kesamoon, a Ph.D. candidate at the Department of Mathematics, Autonomous University of Barcelona Spain, for his kindly suggest in numerical analysis of this work. We are grateful to Mr. Keegan H. Kennedy, Department of Biology, Chiang Mai University and Dr. Peter Green, Aberdeen, UK for helping improve English text.
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