Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 91, Issue 11, pp 1351–1366 | Cite as

Ionospheric and receiver DCB-constrained multi-GNSS single-frequency PPP integrated with MEMS inertial measurements

  • Zhouzheng Gao
  • Maorong Ge
  • Wenbin Shen
  • Hongping Zhang
  • Xiaoji Niu
Original Article


Single-frequency precise point positioning (SF-PPP) is a potential precise positioning technique due to the advantages of the high accuracy in positioning after convergence and the low cost in operation. However, there are still challenges limiting its applications at present, such as the long convergence time, the low reliability, and the poor satellite availability and continuity in kinematic applications. In recent years, the achievements in the dual-frequency PPP have confirmed that its performance can be significantly enhanced by employing the slant ionospheric delay and receiver differential code bias (DCB) constraint model, and the multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data. Accordingly, we introduce the slant ionospheric delay and receiver DCB constraint model, and the multi-GNSS data in SF-PPP modular together. In order to further overcome the drawbacks of SF-PPP in terms of reliability, continuity, and accuracy in the signal easily blocking environments, the inertial measurements are also adopted in this paper. Finally, we form a new approach to tightly integrate the multi-GNSS single-frequency observations and inertial measurements together to ameliorate the performance of the ionospheric delay and receiver DCB-constrained SF-PPP. In such model, the inter-system bias between each two GNSS systems, the inter-frequency bias between each two GLONASS frequencies, the hardware errors of the inertial sensors, the slant ionospheric delays of each user-satellite pair, and the receiver DCB are estimated together with other parameters in a unique Kalman filter. To demonstrate its performance, the multi-GNSS and low-cost inertial data from a land-borne experiment are analyzed. The results indicate that visible positioning improvements in terms of accuracy, continuity, and reliability can be achieved in both open-sky and complex conditions while using the proposed model in this study compared to the conventional GPS SF-PPP.


Single-frequency precise point positioning (SF-PPP) Multi-constellation global navigations satellite systems (Multi-GNSS) Inertial navigation system (INS) Ionospheric delay and receiver DCB constraint (IC) MEMS inertial measurements unit (IMU) 



This work was supported partly by National 973 Project of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB733301 and 2013CB733305), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41128003, 41210006, 41429401, 41574007), DAAD (Grant No. 57173947), NASG Special Project Public Interest (Grant No. 201512001) and the national key research and development program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0501804).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhouzheng Gao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Maorong Ge
    • 4
  • Wenbin Shen
    • 2
  • Hongping Zhang
    • 3
  • Xiaoji Niu
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Land Science and TechnologyChina University of GeosciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Geodesy and GeomaticsWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.GNSS Research CenterWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  4. 4.German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ)PotsdamGermany

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