Acorus calamus L., a semiaquatic plant with a high capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from polluted water, is a potential candidate plant for use in the restoration of eutrophic aquatic ecosystems. However, it is not clear how microcystins (MCs), commonly found in eutrophic water, influence plant growth since the effects of MCs are likely to be dose and species dependent. The present study aimed to investigate the regulation of nitrogen metabolism, a key metabolic process related to plant growth, in the leaves of A. calamus L. exposed to microcystin–leucine-arginine (MC–LR) (1.0–29.8 µg/L). Nitrate (NO3−) uptake, assimilation and transformation was stimulated in the leaves of A. calamus L. when exposed to 1.0 µg/L MC–LR through the elevation of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activity. Conversely, MC–LR inhibited nitrogen metabolism by decreasing NO3− uptake and the activities of enzymes related to nitrogen metabolism following exposure to MC–LR (9.9–29.8 µg/L) for 30 days, while, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) content and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity increased significantly (p < 0.05, LSD test), when compared with the control group. Chronic exposure to MC–LR (9.9–29.8 µg/L) negatively influenced nitrogen metabolism in A. calamus L. leaves, which suggested that it may not be a suitable candidate species for use in the restoration of eutrophic aquatic ecosystems containing MC–LR at concentrations ≥ 9.9 µg/L.
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This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51309197 and 51878582) and the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province of China (2017J01491).
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Chen, G., Li, Q., Bai, M. et al. Nitrogen Metabolism in Acorus calamus L. Leaves Induced Changes in Response to Microcystin–LR at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 103, 280–285 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-019-02597-y
- Environmentally relevant concentrations
- Acorus calamus Linnaeus
- Nitrogen metabolism