Skip to main content

In vitro Effect of Produced Water on Cod, Gadus morhua, Sperm Cells and Fertilization

Abstract

The in vitro effect of produced water released by oil and gas platforms was assessed by exposing cod sperm cells to realistic concentrations of this mixture (100, 200, 500 ppm). We investigated produced water impact on enzymes of the aerobic (citrate synthase) and glycolytic metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase), lipid catabolism (lipase), as well as an anti-oxidant enzyme (catalase). Fertilization rates, viability, respiration, ATP, and total motility duration were also evaluated. To explore correlations between these parameters, we have also tested the effect of conserving sperm for 24 h at 4°C. After conservation, fertilization success was decreased but other parameters were not affected. Produced water did not result in a significant change in fertilization; a significant increase in sperm protein amounts and citrate synthase activity can be observed. No correlations are found between parameters showing that sperm viability and unchanged energy levels do not translate into equivalent fertilization capacity. To conclude, exposure of sperm to produced water resulted only in subtle effects on cells. These findings bring information on the effect of produced water on sperm itself rather than on spermatogenesis or testis development of an exposed fish.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Green CC, Kelly AM (2008) Effect of exogenous soybean phyto-oestrogen genistein on sperm quality, ATP content and fertilization rates in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque) and walleye Sander vitreus (Mitchill). J Fish Biol 72:2485–2499

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Gronczewska J, Zietara MS, Biegniewska A, Skorkowski EF (2003) Enzyme activities in fish spermatozoa with focus on lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from herring Clupea harengus. Comp Biochem Physiol B 134:399–406

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Hamoutene D, Lush L, Drover D, Walsh A (2009) Investigation on the temporal effects of spawning season and maternal and paternal differences on egg quality in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. broodstock. Aquac Res 40:1668–1679

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Hara Y, Strüssman CA, Hashimoto S (2007) Assessment of short-Term exposure to nonylphenol in Japanese Medaka using sperm velocity and frequency of motile sperm. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 53:406–410

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Harada Y, Matsumoto T, Nakashima A, Ueno S, Oda S, Miyazaki S, Iwao Y (2007) Characterization of a sperm factor for egg activation at fertilization of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. Dev Biol 306:797–808

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Kinnberg K, Korsgaard B, Bjerregaard P (2000) Concentration-dependent effects of nonylphenol on testis structure in adult platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus. Mar Environ Res 50:169–173

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Lahnsteiner F, Berger B, Weismann T (1999) Sperm metabolism of the telesot fishes Chalcalburnus chalcoides and Oncorhynchus mykiss and its relation to motility and viability. J Exp Zool 284:454–465

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Lowry OH, Rosenborough NJ, Farr AL, Randal RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin-phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Lush PL (2005) Manipulation of ovulation time in the yellowtail flounder, Limanda ferruginea storer using photothermal cues and gonadotropin hormone releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) administration. Master’s Thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada

  10. Mansour N, Lahnsteiner F, Berger B (2003) Metabolism of intratesticular spermatozoa of a tropical teleost fish (Claria gariepinus). Comp Biochem Physiol B 135:285–296

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Mansour N, Richardson F, McNiven MA (2008) Effect of seminal plasma protein on postthaw viability and fertility of Arctic Char spermatozoa. N Am J Aquac 70:92–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Meier S, Andersen TE, Norberg B, Thorsen A, Taranger GL, Kjesbu OS, Dale R, Morton HC, Klungsoyr J, Svardal A (2007) Effects of alkylphenols on the reproductive system of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Aquat Toxicol 81:207–218

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Mitchell DB, Santone KS, Acosta D (1980) Evaluation of cytotoxicity in cultured cells by enzyme leakage. J Tissue Cult Methods 6:113–116

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Perchec G, Jeulin C, Cosson J, André F, Billard R (1995) Relationship between sperm ATP content and motility of carp spermatozoa. J Cell Sci 108:747–753

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Perez-Casanova JC, Hamoutene D, Samelson-Abbott S, Burt K, King TL, Lee K (2010) The immune response of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) to chronic exposure to produced water. Mar Envir Res. doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2010.02.005

  16. Phillips MCL, Moyes CD, Tufts BL (2000) The effects of cell ageing on metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) red blood cells. J Exp Biol 203:1039–1045

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Roe TI (1998) Produced water discharges to the North Sea: a study of bioavailability of organic produced water compounds to marine organisms. PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

  18. Somerville HJ, Bennett D, Davenport JN, Holt MS, Lynes A, Mathieu A, McCourt B, Parker JR, Stephenson RR (1987) Environmental effects of produced water from North Sea oil operations. Mar Pollut Bull 18:549–553

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Trippel EA, Morgan MJ (1994) Sperm longevity in the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Copeia 1994:1025–1029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. US EPA Method 8270C (1996). http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/test/main.htm

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dounia Hamoutene.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hamoutene, D., Samuelson, S., Lush, L. et al. In vitro Effect of Produced Water on Cod, Gadus morhua, Sperm Cells and Fertilization. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84, 559–563 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-9983-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Produced water
  • In vitro
  • Sperm
  • Cod