Prospective associations between recalled parental bonding and perinatal depression: a cohort study in urban and rural Turkey
Recalled experiences of parental bonding may be important in the aetiology of perinatal depression. We hypothesized that lower recalled parental bonding would be associated with perinatal depression.
In a cohort study of perinatal depression in Turkey, 677 women were recruited in their third trimester. Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) scores at baseline were investigated as predictors of depression on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4, 14 and 21 months after childbirth in mothers without depression at baseline.
Poor parental bonding scores, apart from paternal control and overprotection, were independently associated with antenatal depression. Incident postnatal depression at 4 months was predicted by parental overprotection, at 14 months by parental care and overprotection, and at 21 months by paternal control and overprotection.
Less satisfactory parenting recalled in the antenatal period was an independent predictor of postnatal depression; however, the different bonding subscales varied as predictors according to the timing of the depression assessment after childbirth.
KeywordsAntenatal depression Postnatal depression Parental bonding Parents Cohort study
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