The epidemiology of current depression in Macau, China: towards a plan for mental health action
Macau is a Special Administrative Region in China that has experienced tremendous development in its gambling industry during its post-colonial years. To inform mental health planning, this study presents the first population estimates and correlates of the current depression in Macau.
A population-representative sample of 1068 Macau Chinese citizens aged 18 or above responded to a household telephone survey in January, 2015. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measured the current depression. Logistic regression models assessed the association between depression and potential correlates.
Overall, 8.0% (95% CI 6.3–9.7) of persons reported the current depression. A higher but non-significant proportion of women reported depression than men (9.3 vs. 6.6%) and older women reported higher prevalence (13.4%) than other demographic groups. Persons who were unemployed (OR = 4.9, 2.3–10.5), separated or divorced (OR = 3.1, 1.1–8.9), and reported poor self-rated health (OR = 5.0, 2.8–9.0), low quality of life (OR = 6.2, 3.1–12.7), lower social standing (OR = 2.4, 1.4–4.0), lower community trust (OR = 1.9, 1.2–3.1), lower perceived fairness (OR = 2.3, 1.4–3.8), lower social cohesion (OR = 3.8, 2.3–6.2), and lower social integration (OR = 3.0, 1.9–5.0) had greater odds of depression than their comparison group.
The current study demonstrated the burden of depression among Macau adults disproportionately affects women during emerging adolescence and old age, and men during middle adulthood. Key strategies to improve mental health services in Macau are discussed.
KeywordsChina Macau Depression prevalence Social capital
We thank Juliana Yuncg, Elenna Mo, Ray Wong, Emily Iong, Ung Hou Pang, Angela Ma and Jazz Cheong for their assistance with data collection.
Compliance with ethical standards
This work was supported by the Research and Development Affairs Office (R&DAO), University of Macau, under Grant MYRG2015-00124-FSS and MYRG2015-00109-FSS (PI: Hall). The funding source played no role in the conduct of this research.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no competing interest.
The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional committees on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.
- 3.GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators (2016) Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet 388(10053):1545–1602Google Scholar
- 4.Patel V. et al. (2016) The magnitude of and health system responses to the mental health treatment gap in adults in India and China. The LancetGoogle Scholar
- 25.Zeng W, Chan MF (2010) Investigating factors related to depression among older persons in Macau. Macau Journal of Nursing 9(1)Google Scholar
- 26.The American Association for Public Opinion Research, Standard definitions: final dispositions of case codes and outcome rates for surveys. 2016, AAPORGoogle Scholar
- 31.Direcção dos Serviços de Estatística e Censos, Results of 2011 population census. 2011Google Scholar
- 32.StataCorp, Stata Statistical Software: release 12. 2011, StataCorp LP: College Station, TXGoogle Scholar
- 35.Hu SX et al (2016) Common chronic health problems and life satisfaction among Macau elderly people. Int J Nurs Sci 3(4):367–370Google Scholar
- 38.Hall BJ, Sou K, Chen W, Zhou F, Chang K, Latkin C (2016) An evaluation of the buffering effects of types and sources of support on depressive symptoms among natural disaster–exposed chinese adults. Psychiatry Interpers Biol Process 79:389–402Google Scholar
- 39.Direcção dos Serviços de Correios e Telecomunicações. Major Telecommunication Service Statistics. 2015; Available from: http://telecommunications.ctt.gov.mo/web/en/generalinfo/statistics/mainstat/mainstat2015a
- 40.Pew Research Center for the People and the Press (2006) The Cell Phone Challenge to Survey Research: National Polls Not Undermined by Growing Cell-Only PopulationGoogle Scholar
- 45.Hall BJ, Chang K, Chen W, Sou K, Latkin C, Yeung A (2017) Exploring the association between depression and shenjing shuairuo in a population representative epidemiological study of Chinese adults in Guangzhou, ChinaGoogle Scholar
- 46.Serviços de Saúde. Current registration status of medical professionals. 2014; Available from: http://www.gaes.gov.mo/counseling/images/activityinfo/2014/act2014-6/20140920.pdf. Accessed 10 Jan 2016