Was sind die Einflussfaktoren kindlicher Adipositas?

Eine Literaturübersicht im Rahmen des Projekts „Bevölkerungsweites Monitoring adipositasrelevanter Einflussfaktoren im Kindesalter“

What are the determinants of childhood obesity?

A literature review as part of the project “Nationwide Monitoring of Childhood Obesity Determinants”

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Bereits im Kindesalter kann Adipositas die Gesundheit gefährden und bis ins Erwachsenenalter negative gesundheitliche Auswirkungen entfalten. Eine systematisierte und kontinuierlich aktualisierte Zusammenstellung relevanter Informationen über die multifaktoriellen Ursachen kindlicher Adipositas ist in Deutschland bisher nicht verfügbar. Der Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer systematischen Literaturrecherche nach Einflussfaktoren kindlicher Adipositas dar, die im Zuge des Aufbaus eines bevölkerungsweiten Monitorings durchgeführt wurde.

Methode

Die Suchstrategie bestand aus drei Schritten: Zunächst wurde die Literatur nach Erklärungsmodellen der kindlichen Adipositas durchsucht. Darauf aufbauend erfolgte eine Recherche von Übersichtsarbeiten zu Einflussfaktoren kindlicher Adipositas. Die Ergebnisse wurden anschließend mit internationalen Leitlinien, die sich mit Einflussfaktoren kindlicher Adipositas befassen, abgeglichen.

Ergebnisse

Es wurden 21 Erklärungsmodelle, 75 Übersichtsarbeiten und 7 Leitlinien identifiziert und über 60 Einflussfaktoren der kindlichen Adipositas extrahiert. Diese lassen sich in die Bereiche Ernährungs-, Bewegungs- und Schlafverhalten, biologische Faktoren und Erkrankungen, pränatale und frühkindliche Faktoren, psychosoziale Faktoren, Lebensmittelangebot, Bewegungsmöglichkeiten, Setting und soziales Umfeld, Präventionsmaßnahmen und Gesundheitsförderung, sozioökonomische, demografische, soziokulturelle und sonstige Faktoren gliedern.

Schlussfolgerungen

Der Beitrag verdeutlicht die komplexe Struktur der Einflussfaktoren kindlicher Adipositas im Sinne eines sozialökologischen Erklärungsansatzes. Die Recherche bildet die Basis für das Monitoringsystem „Bevölkerungsweites Monitoring adipositasrelevanter Einflussfaktoren im Kindesalter“, das bis Ende 2017 am Robert Koch-Institut aufgebaut wird.

Abstract

Background

Obesity can impair health even in childhood and unfold negative health consequences through an individual’s lifespan. In Germany, to date, a systematic and periodically updated synopsis of the multifaceted determinants of childhood obesity is lacking. In this paper, we present the results of a systematic literature review on childhood obesity determinants, which was conducted over the course of the implementation of nationwide monitoring.

Methods

The review was carried out in three steps. Initially, a search for etiological models of childhood obesity was conducted. Based on these results, a systematic review of reviews on childhood obesity determinants was carried out. Finally, the results were verified by taking international guidelines on childhood obesity into account.

Results

In total, 21 etiological models, 75 reviews and 7 guidelines were identified. Over 60 determinants were extracted from these publications and were summarized into the following categories: nutritional behavior, physical activity behavior, sleeping pattern, biological determinants and diseases, prenatal and early childhood determinants, psycho-social determinants, food environment, moveability/walkability, setting and social environment, health promotion and prevention, socioeconomic, demographic, and sociocultural determinants.

Conclusion

This review demonstrates the complex patterns of childhood obesity determinants in correspondence with a socio-ecological approach. The review will form the basis for the monitoring-system “Nationwide Monitoring of Childhood Obesity Determinants”, which will be implemented at the Robert Koch Institute by the end of 2017.

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Danksagung

Diese Arbeit wurde unterstützt durch Förderungen des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit (Förderkennzeichen 2515KIG004).

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Correspondence to Johannes Zeiher.

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J. Zeiher, G. Varnaccia, S. Jordan und C. Lange geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Zeiher, J., Varnaccia, G., Jordan, S. et al. Was sind die Einflussfaktoren kindlicher Adipositas?. Bundesgesundheitsbl 59, 1465–1475 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-016-2441-5

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Adipositas
  • Einflussfaktoren
  • Gesundheitsmonitoring
  • Kinder
  • Prävention

Keywords

  • Obesity
  • Determinants
  • Health monitoring
  • Children
  • Prevention