Medicinal Chemistry Research

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 2357–2362 | Cite as

Labdane diterpene lactones of Vitex pubescens and their antileukemic properties

  • Lenny Anwar
  • Mai Efdi
  • Masayuki Ninomiya
  • Sanusi Ibrahim
  • Deddi Prima Putra
  • Kaori Tanaka
  • Mamoru Koketsu
Original Research


Vitex pubescens belonging to the Verbenaceae family, has been historically used as a folk medicine in Indonesia. The dichloromethane extract of V. pubescens stembarks interfered cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Our phytochemical investigation resulted in the isolation of several constituents and their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Upon treatment with labdane diterpene lactones, relatively high inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptotic response of the cells were observed. Furthermore, the structure-activity relationship analysis with clerodane diterpenes revealed that a γ-butyrolactone ring contributes their antileukemic potency. Overall, these findings enhanced the ethnopharmacological relevance of V. pubescens for cancer chemotherapy.


Vitex pubescens Labdane diterpene lactone Andrographolide Antileukemic activity Structure–activity relationship 



We would like to thank to Directorate General of Higher Education for the grant through BPPDN scholarship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

44_2017_1937_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.3 mb)
Supplementary Information


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mathematics and Natural Science EducationRiau UniversityPadangIndonesia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural ScienceUniversitas AndalasPadangIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Faculty of EngineeringGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  4. 4.Faculty of PharmacyUniversitas AndalasPadangIndonesia
  5. 5.Division of Anaerobe Research, Life Science Research CenterGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  6. 6.United Graduate School of Drug Discovery and Medicinal Information SciencesGifu UniversityGifuJapan

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