Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 183–197 | Cite as

Gender differences in anticipated pay negotiation strategies and outcomes

  • Vicki S. Kaman
  • Charmine E. J. Hartel

Abstract

Business students were asked to indicate their pay expectations and anticipated negotiation strategies for a specific management trainee job. They also indicated expectations for their and the recruiter's target and resistance points for the negotiation process. Men, compared to women, indicated higher pay expectations, a higher likelihood of active negotiation, less likelihood of using traditional self-promotion strategies, and more opportunity for legitimate negotiations. Significant correlations were found between pay expectations and negotiation strategies. Intervention strategies for changing women's pay outcome and negotiation expectations are discussed, as well as the need for a better understanding of effective negotiation behaviors.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abelson, R. P. (1985). A variance explanation paradox: When a little is a lot.Psychological Bulletin, 97, 129–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Auster, E. R. (1989). Task characteristics as a bridge between macro- and microlevel research on salary inequality between men and women.Academy of Management Review, 14, 173–193.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency.American Psychologist, 37, 122–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron, R. A. (1984). Reducing organizational conflict: An incompatible response approach.Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 272–279.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartol, K. M., & Martin, D. C. (1988). Influences on managerial pay allocations: A dependency perspective.Personnel Psychology, 41, 361–378.Google Scholar
  6. Bartol, K. M., & Martin, D. C. (1989). Effects of dependence, dependency threats, and pay secrecy on managerial pay allocations.Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 105–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blau, F. D., & Ferber, M. A. (1991). Career plans and expectations of young women and men: The earnings gap and labor force participation.The Journal of Human Resources, 26, 581–607.Google Scholar
  8. Bridges, J. S. (1988). Sex differences in occupational performance expectations.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 12, 75–90.Google Scholar
  9. Callahan-Levy, C. M., & Messe, L. A. (1979). Sex differences in the allocation of pay.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 433–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clement, S. L. (1987). The self-efficacy expectations and occupational preferences of females and males.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 60, 257–265.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, W. A. (1983).The executive's guide to finding a superior job. New York: American Management Association.Google Scholar
  12. Darley, J. M., & Fazio, R. H. (1980). Expectancy confirmation processes arising in the social interaction sequence.American Psychologist, 35, 867–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deaux, K. (1984). From individual differences to social categories: Analysis of a decade's research on gender.American Psychologist, 39, 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dreher, G. F., Dougherty, T. W., & Whitely, W. (1989). Influence tactics and salary attainment: A gender-specific analysis.Sex Roles, 20, 535–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Freedman, S. M. (1978). Some determinants of compensation decisions.Academy of Management Journal, 21, 397–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Freedman, S. M. (1979). The effects of subordinate sex, pay equity, and strength of demand on compensation decisions.Sex Roles, 5, 649–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Freedman, S. M., & Phillips, J. S. (1988). The changing nature of research on women at work.Journal of Management, 14, 231–251.Google Scholar
  18. Gerhart, B. (1990). Gender differences in current and starting salaries: The role of performance, college major, and job title.Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 43, 418–433.Google Scholar
  19. Gerhart, B., & Rynes, S. (1991). Determinants and consequences of salary negotiations by male and female MBA graduates.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 256–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Greenberger, E., & Steinberg, L. D. (1983). Sex differences in early labor force experience: Harbinger of things to come.Social Forces, 62, 467–486.Google Scholar
  21. Hesse-Biber, S. (1985). Male and female students' perceptions of their academic environment and future career plans: Implications for higher education.Human Relations, 38, 91–105.Google Scholar
  22. Irish, R. K. (1973).Go hire yourself an employer. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  23. Keys, D. E. (1985). Gender, sex role, and career decision making of certified management accountants.Sex Roles, 13, 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lathan, M. H., Ostrowski, B. A., Pavlock, E. J., & Scott, R. A. (1987, January). Recruiting entry level staff: Gender differences.The CPA Journal, January, pp. 30–42.Google Scholar
  25. Lenney, E. (1977). Women's self-confidence in achievement settings.Psychological Bulletin, 84, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lewicki, R. J., & Litterer, J. A. (1985).Negotiation. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.Google Scholar
  27. Lituchy, T. R., & Kaman, V. K. (1988).Pay expectations and sex differences: An extension with a homogeneous sample. Paper presented at the National Academy of Management Meetings, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  28. Mainiero, L. A. (1986). Coping with powerlessness: The relationship of gender and job dependency to empowerment strategy usage.Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 633–653.Google Scholar
  29. Major, B. (1987). Gender, justice and the psychology of entitlement. In P. Shaver & C. Hendrick (Eds.)Review of personality and social psychology (vol. 7, pp. 124–148). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. Major, B. (1989). Gender differences in comparisons and entitlement: Implications for comparable worth.Journal of Social Issues, 45, 99–115.Google Scholar
  31. Major, B., & Konar, E. (1984). An investigation of sex differences in pay expectations and their possible causes.Academy of Management Journal, 27, 777–792.Google Scholar
  32. Major, B., McFarlin, D., & Gagnon, D. (1984). Overworked and underpaid: On the nature of gender differences in personal entitlement.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1399–1412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Major, B., Vanderslice, V., & McFarlin, D. (1984). Effects of pay expected on pay received: The confirmatory nature of individual expectations.Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14, 399–412.Google Scholar
  34. Martin, B. A. (1989). Gender differences in salary expectations when current salary information is provided.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13, 87–96.Google Scholar
  35. McFarlin, D. B., Frone, M. R., Major, B., & Konar, E. (1989). Predicting career-entry pay expectations: The role of gender-based comparisons.Journal of Business and Psychology, 3, 331–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. (1987, October). Corporate recruiting—tips from the experts.Sense, p. 1.Google Scholar
  37. Ragins, B. R., & Sundstrom, E. (1989). Gender and power in organizations: A longitudinal perspective.Psychological Bulletin, 10, 51–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rubin, J. Z., & Brown, B. R. (1975).The social psychology of bargaining and negotiations. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  39. Rust, H. L. (1979).The complete manual for jobseekers. New York: AMACOM.Google Scholar
  40. Rynes, S. L., Weber, C. L., & Milkovich, G. T. (1989). Effects of market survey rates, job evaluation, and job gender on job pay.Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 114–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Standard & Poor's (1988).Standard & Poor's register of corporations, directors and executives. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  42. Stevens, C. K., Bavetta, A. G., & Gist, M. E. (1991). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Miami, FL.Google Scholar
  43. Swift, K., Verseput, T., & Kleiner, B. (1985, February). Salary negotiation: A strategy for success.Office Administration and Automation, pp. 30–32, 82–83.Google Scholar
  44. U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration. (1977).Dictionary of occupational titles. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  45. Watson, C., & Kasten, B. (1988).Separate strengths? How men and women negotiate. Paper presented at the 1988 National Academy of Management Meetings, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vicki S. Kaman
    • 1
  • Charmine E. J. Hartel
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Management, College of BusinessColorado State UniversityFort Collins
  2. 2.University of TulsaUSA

Personalised recommendations