Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology

, Volume 286, Issue 4, pp 389–400 | Cite as

In vivo rates of tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylation in regions of rat brain at four times during the light-dark cycle

  • Jean DiRaddo
  • Carol Kellogg
Article

Summary

The in vivo rates of tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylation were studied in three regions of young adult rat brains at 4 times during the light-dark cycle. The procedure utilized was to analyze the accumulation of Dopa and 5-HTP after injection of a centrally effective L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, NSD 1015. Monoamine levels were also determined in all control animals and some treated animals. The rate of tyrosine hydroxylation in the telencephalon was significantly higher 7 hrs after dark onset than at the other three times tested. Smaller variations in tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylation rates as a function of time of day were also observed. 5-HT levels were significantly higher during the light phase than the dark in the telencephalon with the same trend occurring in the diencephalon and brainstem. NA was stable in the telencephalon but reached lower levels in the light and higher levels in the dark in the other two regions. In the telencephalon DA reached high levels early in the light and in the dark phases, showing a biphasic variation. Of particular interest was the apparent lack of correlation between cyclic changes in the monoamine levels and the changes in hydroxylation rates. Rates of hydroxylation can be considered indicative of rates of monoamine synthesis. This observation is discussed in relation to feedback and other mechanisms regulating synthesis and release of monoamines.

Key words

Tyrosine and Tryptophan Hydroxylase NSD 1015 Time of Day 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ader, R.: Behavioral and physiological rhythms and the development of gastric erosions in the rat. Psychosom. Med. 29, 345–353 (1967)Google Scholar
  2. Aghajanian, G. K., Bunney, B. S.: Central dopaminergic neurons: neurophysiological identification and responses to drugs. In: Frontiers in catecholamine research. Eds.: E. Usdin and S. Snyder, pp. 643–648. New York: Pergamon Press 1973Google Scholar
  3. Albrecht, P., Visscher, M. B., Bittner, J. J., Halberg, F.: Daily changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine concentration in mouse brain. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 92, 703–706 (1956)Google Scholar
  4. Andén, N.-E.: Catecholamine receptor mechanisms in vertebrates. In: Frontiers in catecholamine research. Eds.: E. Usdin and S. Snyder, pp. 661–665. New York: Pergamon Press 1973Google Scholar
  5. Andén, N.-E., Carlsson, A., Häggendal, J.: Adrenergic mechanisms. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 9, 119–134 (1969)Google Scholar
  6. Andén, N.-E., Fuxe, K., Hökfelt, T.: Effect of some drugs on central monoamine nerve terminals lacking nerve impulse flow. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 1, 226–232 (1967)Google Scholar
  7. Asano, Y.: The maturation of the circadian rhythm of brain norepinephrine and serotonin in the rat. Life Sci. 10, 883–894 (1971)Google Scholar
  8. Atack, C. V.: The determination of dopamine by a modification of the dihydroxyindole fluorimetric assay. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 48, 699–714 (1973)Google Scholar
  9. Atack, C., Lindqvist, M.: Conjoint native and orthophthaldialdehyde-condensate assays for the fluorimetric determination of 5-hydroxyindoles in brain. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 279, 267–284 (1973)Google Scholar
  10. Atack, C. V., Magnusson, T.: Individual elution of noradrenaline (together with adrenaline), dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine from a single, strong cation exchange column, by means of mineral acid-organic solvent mixtures. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 22, 625–627 (1970)Google Scholar
  11. Bertler, A., Carlsson, A., Rosengren, E.: A method for the fluorimetric determination of adrenaline and noradrenaline in tissues. Acta physiol. scand. 44, 273–292 (1958)Google Scholar
  12. Bobillier, P., Mouret, J. R.: The alterations of the diurnal variations of brain tryptophan, biogenic amines and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in the rat under limited time feeding. Int. J. Neurosci. 2, 271–282 (1971)Google Scholar
  13. Carlsson, A., Bédard, B., Lindqvist, M., Magnusson, T.: The influence of nerveimpulse flow on the synthesis and metabolism of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the central nervous system. Biochem. Soc. Symp. 36, 17–32 (1972a)Google Scholar
  14. Carlsson, A., Davis, J. N., Kehr, W., Lindqvist, M., Atack, C. V.: Simultaneous measurement of tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylase activities in brain in vivo using an inhibitor of the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 275, 153–168 (1972b)Google Scholar
  15. Carlsson, A., Lindqvist, M.: In-vivo measurements of tryptophan and tyrosine hydroxylase activities in mouse brain. J. Neural Transm. 34, 79–91 (1973)Google Scholar
  16. Dixit, B. N., Buckley, J. P.: Circadian changes in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and plasma corticosterone in the rat. Life Sci. 6, 755–758 (1967)Google Scholar
  17. Fernstrom, J. D., Wurtman, R. J.: Nutrition and the brain. Sci. Amer. 230, 84–91 (1974)Google Scholar
  18. Friedman, A. H., Walker, C. A.: Circadian rhythms in rat mid-brain and caudate nucleus biogenic amine levels. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 197, 77–85 (1968)Google Scholar
  19. Friedman, A. H., Walker, C. A.: Rat brain amines, blood histamine and glucose levels in relationship to circadian changes in sleep induced by pentobarbitone sodium. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 202, 133–146 (1969)Google Scholar
  20. Hery, F., Rouer, E., Glowinski, J.: Daily variations of serotonin metabolism in the rat brain. Brain Res. 43, 445–465 (1972)Google Scholar
  21. Kehr, W., Carlsson, A., Lindqvist, M.: A method for the determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) in brain. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 274, 273–280 (1973)Google Scholar
  22. Kopin, I. J., Breese, G. R., Krauss, K. R., Weise, V. K.: Selective release of newly synthetized norepinephrine from the cat spleen during sympathetic nerve stimulation. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 161, 271–278 (1968)Google Scholar
  23. Levitt, M., Spector, S., Sjoerdsma, A., Udenfriend, S.: Elucidation of the rate-limiting step in norepinephrine biosynthesis in the perfused guinea-pig heart. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 148, 1–8 (1965)Google Scholar
  24. Lindqvist, M.: Quantitative estimation of 5-hydroxy-3-indole acetic acid and 5-hydroxytryptophan in the brain following isolation by means of a strong cation exchange column. Acta pharmacol. (Kbh.) 29, 303–313 (1971)Google Scholar
  25. Lovenberg, W., Jequier, E., Sjoerdsma, A.: Tryptophan hydroxylation in mammalian systems. Advanc. Pharmacol. 6A, 21–36 (1968)Google Scholar
  26. Mandell, A.: Redundant macromolecular mechanisms in central synaptic regulation. In: New concepts in neurotransmitter regulation. Ed.: A Mandell, pp. 259–277. New York: Plenum Press 1973Google Scholar
  27. Manshardt, J., Wurtman, R. J.: Daily rhythm in the noradrenaline content of rat hypothalamus. Nature (Lond.) 217, 574–475 (1968)Google Scholar
  28. Margules, D. L., Lewis, M. J., Dragovich, J. A., Margules, A. S.: Hypothalamic norepinephrine: circadian rhythms and the control of feeding behavior. Science 178, 640–643 (1972)Google Scholar
  29. McGeer, E. G., McGeer, P. L.: Some characteristics of brain tyrosine hydroxylase. In: New concepts in neurotransmitter regulation. Ed.: A Mandell, pp. 53–68. New York: Plenum Press 1973Google Scholar
  30. Morgan, W. M., McFadin, L. S., Harvey, C. Y.: A daily rhythm in norepinephrine content in regions of the hamster brain. Comp. gen. Pharmacol. 4, 47–52 (1973)Google Scholar
  31. Morgan, W. M., Yndo, C. A.: Daily rhythms in tryptophan and serotonin content in mouse brain: the apparent independence of these parameters from daily changes in food intake and from plasma tryptophan content. Life Sci. 12, 395–408 (1973)Google Scholar
  32. Morgan, W. M., Yndo, C. A., McFadin, L. S.: Daily rhythmic changes in the content of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cerebral cortex of mice. Life Sci. 14, 329–338 (1974)Google Scholar
  33. Neff, N. H., Costa, E.: The influence of monoamine oxidase inhibition on catecholamine synthesis. Life Sci. 5, 951–959 (1966)Google Scholar
  34. Neff, N. H., Costa, E.: Application of steady-state kinetics to the study of catecholamine turnover after monoamine oxidase inhibition or reserpine administration. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 160, 40–47 (1968)Google Scholar
  35. Okada, F.: The maturation of the circadian rhythm of brain serotonin in the rat. Life Sci. 10, 77–86 (1971)Google Scholar
  36. Quay, W. B.: Circadian rhythm in rat pineal serotonin and its modifications by estrous cycle and photoperiod. Gen. comp. Endocr. 3, 473–479 (1963)Google Scholar
  37. Quay, W. B.: Regional and circadian differences in cerebral cortical serotonin concentrations. Life Sci. 4, 379–384 (1965)Google Scholar
  38. Quay, W. B.: Differences in circadian rhythms in 5-hydroxytryptamine according to brain region. Amer. J. Physiol. 215, 1448–1453 (1968)Google Scholar
  39. Reis, D. J., Weinbren, M., Corvelli, A.: A circadian rhythm of norepinephrine regionally in cat brain: its relationship to environmental lighting and to regional diurnal variations in brain serotonin. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 164, 135–145 (1968)Google Scholar
  40. Reis, D. J., Wurtman, R. J.: Diurnal changes in brain noradrenaline. Life Sci. 7, 91–98 (1968)Google Scholar
  41. Saito, Y.: The circadian rhythm of brain acetylcholine levels and motor activity in the rat. Life Sci. 10, 735–744 (1971)Google Scholar
  42. Scapagnini, U., Moberg, G. P., VanLoon, G. R., deGroot, J., Ganong, W. F.: Relation of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine content to the diurnal variation in plasma corticosterone in the rat. Neuroendocr. 7, 90–96 (1971)Google Scholar
  43. Scheving, L. E., Harrison, W. H., Gordon, P., Pauly, J. E.: Daily fluctuations (circadian and ultradian) in biogenic amines of the rat brain. Amer. J. Physiol. 214, 166–173 (1968)Google Scholar
  44. Siegel, S.: Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill 1956Google Scholar
  45. Sollberger, A.: Circadian rhythms. Exp. Med. Surg. 27, 80–104 (1969)Google Scholar
  46. Sollberger, A.: Biological rhythms and their control in neurobehavioral perspective. Neurosci. Res. 4, 101–163 (1971)Google Scholar
  47. Spector, S., Gordon, R., Sjoerdsma, A., Udenfriend, S.: End-product inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase as a possible mechanism for regulation of norepinephrine synthesis. Molec. Pharmacol. 3, 549–555 (1967)Google Scholar
  48. Weiner, N.: Regulation of norepinephrine biosynthesis. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 10, 273–290 (1970)Google Scholar
  49. Wurtman, R. J., Larin, F., Mostafapour, S., Fernstrom, J. D.: Brain catechol synthesis: control by brain tyrosine concentration. Science 185, 183–184 (1974)Google Scholar
  50. Zigmond, M. J., Wurtman, R. J.: Daily rhythm in the accumulation of brain catecholamine synthesized from circulating 3H-tyrosine. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 172, 416–422 (1970)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean DiRaddo
    • 1
  • Carol Kellogg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations