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Isolation and characterization of AaAER, a novel double bond reductase from Artemisia annua

  • Yu-Kun Wei
  • Jian-Xu Li
  • Wen-Li Hu
  • Chang-Qing Yang
  • Ling-Jian Wang
Original Article
  • 188 Downloads

Abstract

We isolated a 2-alkenal reductase (AaAER) gene from Artemisia annua L. cDNA library through homologous cloning strategy. Enzymatic properties of AaAER, including substrate selectivity, enzyme kinetics, and key factors affecting enzyme activity, were characterized in vitro. We found that AaAER mainly functions in catalyzing the reduction of adjacent straight chain “C = C” double bond in the carbonyl group. This suggests the possibility of its participation in downstream events of the HPL (hydroperoxide lyase) pathway and contribution to cell detoxification in plants. Although, AaAER shares some substrates with AaDbr 1 and AaDbr 2, which are involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, AaAER was unable to reduce the adjacent double bond of carbonyl group in artemisinic aldehyde. We also analyzed the possible causes for highly homologous reductases with different types of substrates and non-homologous enzymes sharing the same substrate. The identification of a novel double bond reductase in A. annua provides an opportunity to explore the mechanism underlying the detoxification of aldehyde ketone molecules, which are generated by HPL downstream pathway and the redox process in the metabolic pathway of artemisinin synthesis.

Keywords

Artemisia annuaDetoxification Double bond reductase Enzyme activity Reactive carbonyls 

Abbreviations

MeJA

Methyl jasmonate

SA

Salicylic acid

RACE

Rapid amplification of cDNA ends

AaAER

2-alkenal reductase of Artemisia annua

Dbr1

Double bond reductase 1

Dbr2

Artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase

MEGA

Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis

Supplementary material

13562_2014_278_MOESM1_ESM.doc (32 kb)
Table S1 The primers used in this study (DOC 32 kb)
13562_2014_278_Fig3_ESM.gif (190 kb)
Fig. S1

The alignment of amino acid sequences of AaAER and its homologs. The boxed AXXGXXG is NADP + binding site. Three glycines indicated with arrowheads are key sites of the active enzyme with high-level structure. (GIF 189 kb)

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High resolution image (TIFF 256 kb)
13562_2014_278_Fig4_ESM.gif (91 kb)
Fig. S2

Inducible expression and purification of AaAER. (a) In vitro Inducible expression and purification of AaAER protein. Lane 1, in vitro total AaAER protein; lane 2, empty vector; lane 3, 10 mM imidazol elution; lane 4–5, 20 mM imidazol elution; lane 6–8 250 mM imidazol elution; Lane 9, protein marker. (b) Western blotting data further identified target proteins. Data showed the protein size of the target is around 55 kD. Lane 1, protein target; lane 2, protein marker. (GIF 91 kb)

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High resolution image (TIFF 1722 kb)
13562_2014_278_Fig5_ESM.gif (220 kb)
Fig. S3

GC-MS analyses of the reaction between AaAER and 2-nonenal. Reduction activity of AaAER was identified in reaction systems with inactive proteins and without NADPH. Product was identified through GC-MS chromatogram compared to standard. a, Chromatogram of product (2-nonanal). b, Chromatogram of standard (2-nonanal). (GIF 219 kb)

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High resolution image (TIFF 3063 kb)
13562_2014_278_Fig6_ESM.gif (162 kb)
Fig. S4

GC-MS analyses of the reaction between AaAER and 3-nonen-2-one. Reduction activity of AaAER was identified in reaction systems with inactived proteins. Product was identified through GC-MS chromatogram compared to standard. a, Chromatogram of product (2-nonanone). b, Chromatogram of standard (2-nonanone). (GIF 161 kb)

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High resolution image (TIFF 3333 kb)
13562_2014_278_Fig7_ESM.gif (172 kb)
Fig. S5

GC-MS analyses of the reaction between AaAER and cinnamaldehyde. Reduction activity of AaAER was identified in reaction systems with inactivate proteins. Product was identified through GC-MS chromatogram compared to standard. a, Chromatogram of product (hydrocinnamaldehyde). b, Chromatogram of standard (hydrocinnamaldehyde). (GIF 172 kb)

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High resolution image (TIFF 3517 kb)
13562_2014_278_Fig8_ESM.gif (198 kb)
Fig. S6

GC-MS analyses of the reaction between AaAER and trans-2, cis-6-nonadienal. Product was identified through GC-MS chromatogram compared to standard. a, Chromatogram of product (6-nonenal). b, Chromatogram of standard (6-nonenal). (GIF 198 kb)

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High resolution image (TIFF 3249 kb)
13562_2014_278_Fig9_ESM.gif (14 kb)
Fig. S7

Effect of temperature on AaAER activity. Reactions with 3-nonen-2-one as a substrate were carried out in HEPES buffer at pH 6.0. The curve of reaction rate against the temperature. (GIF 13 kb)

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High resolution image (TIFF 16899 kb)
13562_2014_278_Fig10_ESM.gif (12 kb)
Fig. S8

Effects of pH on AaAER activity. Reactions were carried out in HEPES buffer at 37 °C. The curve of reaction rate against pH. (GIF 12 kb)

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High resolution image (TIFF 16437 kb)
13562_2014_278_Fig11_ESM.gif (28 kb)
Fig. S9

Effects of metal ions on AaAER activity. Comparison of reaction rate with different metal ions. HEPES buffer without metal ions was used as a control. Reactions with 3-nonen-2-one as a substrate were carried out at 37 °C and pH 6.0. The difference in the average reaction rate of different metal ions was evaluated by Dunnett’s Multiple Comparison Test. ** and *** indicate different degrees of difference compared to controls. (GIF 28 kb)

13562_2014_278_MOESM10_ESM.tif (15.2 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 15612 kb)

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Copyright information

© Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu-Kun Wei
    • 1
  • Jian-Xu Li
    • 2
  • Wen-Li Hu
    • 2
  • Chang-Qing Yang
    • 2
  • Ling-Jian Wang
    • 2
  1. 1.Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of SciencesShanghai Chenshan Botanical GardenShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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