Demography

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 435–457 | Cite as

Males’ Later-Life Mortality Consequences of Coresidence With Paternal Grandparents: Evidence From Northeast China, 1789–1909

Article

Abstract

In this study, we investigate the effect of early-life coresidence with paternal grandparents on male mortality risks in adulthood and older age in northeast China from 1789 to 1909. Despite growing interest in the influence of grandparents on child outcomes, few studies have examined the effect of coresidence with grandparents in early life on mortality in later life. We find that coresidence with paternal grandmothers in childhood is associated with higher mortality risks for males in adulthood. This may reflect the long-term effects of conflicts between mothers and their mothers-in-law. These results suggest that in extended families, patterns of coresidence in childhood may have long-term consequences for mortality, above and beyond the effects of common environmental and genetic factors, even when effects on childhood mortality are not readily apparent.

Keywords

Paternal grandparent presence Mortality risks Life course 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Dwight Davis, Hao Dong, Noreen Goldman, James Lee, Evan Roberts, Xi Song, and members of the Lee-Campbell research group for their suggestions. Versions of this article were presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Boston, MA, May 1–2, 2014; and the Social Science History Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, ON, November 6–9, 2014. Preparation and documentation of the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset, Liaoning (CMGPD-LN) for public release via ICPSR Data Sharing for Demographic Research (DSDR) was supported by NICHD R01 HD057175-01A1 “Multi-Generation Family and Life History Panel Dataset” with funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

Supplementary material

13524_2018_653_MOESM1_ESM.docx (63 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 62 kb)

References

  1. Allison, P. D. (1984). Event history analysis: Regression for longitudinal event data. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison, P. D., & Christakis, N. A. (2006). Fixed-effects methods for the analysis of nonrepeated events. Sociological Methodology, 36, 155–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alter, G., Oris, M., & Broström, G. (2001). The family and mortality: A case study from rural Belgium. Annales de Démographie Historique, 101(1), 11–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker, D. J. (1992). The fetal origins of diseases of old age. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46, S3–S9.Google Scholar
  5. Beise, J. (2002). A multilevel event history analysis of the effects of grandmothers on child mortality in a historical German population: Krummhörn, Ostfriesland, 1720–1874. Demographic Research, 7(article 13), 469–498.  https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2002.7.13
  6. Beise, J. (2005). The helping and the helpful grandmother: The role of maternal and paternal grandmothers in child mortality in the 17th and 18th century population of French settlers in Quebec, Canada. In E. Voland, A. Chasiotis, & W. Schiefenhovel (Eds.), Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of the female life (pp. 215–238). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Ben-Shlomo, Y., & Kuh, D. (2002). A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology: Conceptual models, empirical challenges and interdisciplinary perspectives. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell, C., & Lee, J. Z. (1996). A death in the family: Household structure and mortality in rural Liaoning: Life-event and time-series analysis, 1792–1867. History of the Family, 1, 297–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell, C., & Lee, J. Z. (2001). Free and unfree labor in Qing China: Emigration and escape among the bannermen of northeast China, 1789–1909. History of the Family, 6, 455–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell, C., & Lee, J. Z. (2002). When husbands and parents die: Widowhood and orphanhood in late imperial Liaoning, 1789–1909. In R. Derosas & M. Oris (Eds.), When dad died: Individuals and families coping with family stress in past societies (pp. 313–334). Bern, Switzerland: Lang.Google Scholar
  11. Campbell, C., & Lee, J. Z. (2004). Mortality and household in seven Liaodong populations, 1749–1909. In T. Bengtsson, C. Campbell, & J. Z. Lee (Eds.), Life under pressure: Mortality and living standards in Europe and Asia, 1700–1900 (pp. 293–324). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, C., & Lee, J. Z. (2009). Long-term mortality consequences of childhood family context in Liaoning, China, 1749–1909. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 1641–1648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chan, T. W., & Boliver, V. (2013). The grandparents effect in social mobility: Evidence from British birth cohort studies. American Sociological Review, 78, 662–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, S., Campbell, C. D., & Lee, J. (2014). Categorical inequality and gender difference: Marriage and remarriage in northeast China, 1749–1913. In C. Lundh & S. Kurosu (Eds.), Similarity in difference: Marriage in Europe and Asia (pp. 1700–1900). Boston, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  15. Cunningham, S. A., Elo, I. T., Herbst, K., & Hosegood, V. (2010). Prenatal development in rural South Africa: Relationship between birth weight and access to fathers and grandparents. Population Studies, 64, 229–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Derosas, R. (2002). Fatherless families in 19th century Venice. In R. Derosas & M. Oris (Eds.), When dad died: Individuals and families coping with distress in past societies (pp. 421–452). Bern, Switzerland: Lang.Google Scholar
  17. Dong, H., Campbell, C., Kurosu, S., Yang, W., & Lee, J. Z. (2015). New sources for comparative social science: Historical population panel data from East Asia. Demography, 52, 1061–1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dong, H., & Lee, J. Z. (2014). Kinship matters: Long-term mortality consequences of childhood migration, historical evidence from northeast China, 1792–1909. Social Science & Medicine, 119, 274–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elo, I. T., Martikainen, P., & Myrskylä, M. (2014). Socioeconomic status across the life course and all cause and cause-specific mortality in Finland. Social Science & Medicine, 119, 198–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Elo, I. T., & Preston, S. H. (1992). Effects of early-life conditions on adult mortality: A review. Population Index, 58, 186–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Engle, P. L., & Breaux, C. (1998). Fathers’ involvement with children: Perspectives from developing countries. Social Policy Report: Society for Research in Child Development, 12(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
  22. Evans, D. K., & Miguel, E. (2007). Orphans and schooling in Africa: A longitudinal analysis. Demography, 44, 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forsdahl, A. (2002). Observations throwing light on the high mortality in the county of Finnmark: Is the high mortality today a late effect of very poor living conditions in childhood and adolescence? International Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 302–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Galobardes, B., Smith, G. D., & Lynch, J. W. (2006). Systematic review of the influence of childhood socioeconomic circumstances on risk for cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Annals of Epidemiology, 16, 91–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Griffiths, P., Hinde, A., & Matthews, Z. (2001). Infant and child mortality in three culturally contrasting states of India. Journal of Biosocial Science, 33, 603–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hawkes, K. (2004). Human longevity: The grandmother effect. Nature, 428, 128–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hayward, M. D., & Gorman, B. K. (2004). The long arm of childhood: The influence of early-life social conditions on men’s mortality. Demography, 41, 87–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hoffman, S. D., & Duncan, G. J. (1988). Multinomial and conditional logit discrete-choice models in demography. Demography, 25, 415–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hu, Y., & Goldman, N. (1990). Mortality differentials by marital status: An international comparison. Demography, 27, 233–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jamison, C. S., Cornell, L. L., Jamison, P. L., & Nakazato, H. (2002). Are all grandmothers equal? A review and a preliminary test of the “grandmother hypothesis” in Tokugawa Japan. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 119, 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jendrek, M. P. (1993). Grandparents who parent their grandchildren: Effects on lifestyle. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 609–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kemkes-Grottenthaler, A. (2005). Of grandmothers, grandfathers and wicked step-grandparents: Differential impact of paternal grandparents on grandoffspring survival. Historical Social Research, 30(3), 219–239.Google Scholar
  33. Knodel, J., & Ofstedal, M. B. (2002). Patterns and determinants of living arrangements. In A. I. Hermalin (Ed.), The well-being of the elderly in Asia: A four-country comparative study (pp. 143–184). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kuh, D. J., & Wadsworth, M. E. (1993). Physical health status at 36 years in a British national birth cohort. Social Science & Medicine, 37, 905–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lee, J. Z., & Campbell, C. D. (1997). Fate and fortune in rural China: Social organization and population behavior in Liaoning 1774–1873 (Vol. 31). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee, J. Z., & Campbell, C. D. (2011). China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset, Liaoning (CMGPD-LN), 17491909 [Computer File ICPSR27063-V6]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. Retrieved from  https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR27063.v10
  37. Lee, J. Z., Campbell, C. D., & Chen, S. (2010). China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset, Liaoning (CMGPD-LN), 1749–1909: User guide. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.Google Scholar
  38. Leon, D. A., & Smith, G. D. (2000). Infant mortality, stomach cancer, stroke, and coronary heart disease: Ecological analysis. BMJ, 320, 1705–1706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leonetti, D. L., Nath, D. C., Hemam, N. S., & Neill, D. B. (2005). Kinship organization and the impact of grandmothers on reproductive success among the matrilineal Khasi and patrilineal Bengali of northeast India. In E. Voland, A. Chasiotis, & W. Schiefenhovel (Eds.), Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life (pp. 194–214). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Logan, J. R., Bian, F., & Bian, Y. (1998). Tradition and change in the urban Chinese family: The case of living arrangements. Social Forces, 76, 851–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Long, J. S. (1997). Regression models for categorical and limited dependent variables (Advanced quantitative techniques in the social sciences, Vol. 7). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Mare, R. D. (2011). A multigenerational view of inequality. Demography, 48, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Martikainen, P., Valkonen, T., & Moustgaard, H. (2009). The effects of individual taxable income, household taxable income, and household disposable income on mortality in Finland, 1998–2004. Population Studies, 63, 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morrell, R., Posel, D., & Devey, R. (2003). Counting fathers in South Africa: Issues of definition, methodology and policy. Social Dynamics, 29(2), 73–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mosley, W. H., & Gray, R. (1993). Childhood precursors of adult morbidity and mortality in developing countries: Implications for health programs. In J. N. Gribble & S. H. Preston (Eds.), The epidemiological transition: Policy and planning implications for developing countries (pp. 69–100). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  46. Preston, S. H., Hill, M. E., & Drevenstedt, G. L. (1998). Childhood conditions that predict survival to advanced ages among African-Americans. Social Science & Medicine, 47, 1231–1246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ruggles, S., & Heggeness, M. (2008). Intergenerational coresidence in developing countries. Population and Development Review, 34, 253–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sear, R., & Coall, D. (2011). How much does family matter? Cooperative breeding and the demographic transition. Population and Development Review, 37(Suppl. 1), 81–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sear, R., & Mace, R. (2008). Who keeps children alive? A review of the effects of kin on child survival. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Song, X., & Mare, R. D. (2017). Short-term and long-term educational mobility of families: A two-sex approach. Demography, 54, 145–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Takagi, E., & Silverstein, M. (2006). Intergenerational coresidence of the Japanese elderly: Are cultural norms proactive or reactive? Research on Aging, 28, 473–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tsuya, N. O., & Kurosu, S. (2002). The mortality effects of adult male death on women and children in agrarian households in early modern Japan: Evidence from two northeastern villages, 1716–1870. In R. Derosas & M. Oris (Eds.), When dad died: Individuals and families coping with distress in past societies (pp. 261–299). Bern, Switzerland: Lang.Google Scholar
  53. Tsuya, N. O., & Kurosu, S. (2004). Mortality and household in two Ou villages, 1716–1870. In T. Bengtsson, C. Campbell, & J. Lee (Eds.), Life under pressure: Mortality and living standard in Europe and Asia, 1700–1900 (pp. 264–265). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  54. Tymicki, K. (2004). Kin influence on female reproductive behavior: The evidence from reconstitution of the Bejsce parish registers, 18th to 20th centuries, Poland. American Journal of Human Biology, 16, 508–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tymicki, K. (2009). The correlates of infant and childhood mortality: A theoretical overview and new evidence from the analysis of longitudinal data of the Bejsce (Poland) parish register reconstitution study of the 18th–20th centuries. Demographic Research, 20(article 23), 559–594.  https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2009.20.23 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Voland, E., & Beise, J. (2002). Opposite effects of maternal and paternal grandmothers on infant survival in historical Krummhörn. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 52, 435–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Willfuhr, K. P. (2009). Short- and long-term consequences of early parental loss in the historical population of the Krummhörn (18th and 19th century). American Journal of Human Biology, 21, 488–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zeng, Z., & Xie, Y. (2014). The effects of grandparents on children’s schooling: Evidence from rural China. Demography, 51, 599–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sanford School of Public PolicyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Division of Social Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and TechnologyHong KongChina
  3. 3.School of History and CultureCentral China Normal UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations