Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 16–32

Gestational Restraint Stress and the Developing Dopaminergic System: An Overview

  • Carlos J. Baier
  • María R. Katunar
  • Ezequiela Adrover
  • María Eugenia Pallarés
  • Marta C. Antonelli
Review Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12640-011-9305-4

Cite this article as:
Baier, C.J., Katunar, M.R., Adrover, E. et al. Neurotox Res (2012) 22: 16. doi:10.1007/s12640-011-9305-4

Abstract

Prenatal stress exerts a strong impact on fetal brain development in rats impairing adaptation to stressful conditions, subsequent vulnerability to anxiety, altered sexual function, and enhanced propensity to self-administer drugs. Most of these alterations have been attributed to changes in the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). In humans; dysfunction of dopaminergic system is associated with development of several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson disease, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and depression. Evidences provided by animal research, as well as retrospective studies in humans, pointed out that exposure to adverse events in early life can alter adult behaviors and neurochemical indicators of midbrain DA activity, suggesting that the development of the DA system is sensitive to disruption by exposure to early stressors. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of published studies and our own study related to the effect of prenatal insults on the development of DA metabolism and biology, focusing mainly in articles involving prenatal-restraint stress protocols in rats. We will also attempt to make a correlation between theses alterations and DA-related pathological processes in humans.

Keywords

Prenatal stress Restraint Rat brain Limbic system Dopamine 

Abbreviations

6-OHDA

6-Hydroxydopamine

AADC

l-Amino acid decarboxylase

AAS

Androgenic-anabolic esteroids

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADHD

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

AMG

Amygdala

COMT

Catechol-O-methyltransferase

CPu

Caudate putamen

CPu-L

Caudate putamen lateral

CPu-M

Caudate putamen medial

CRH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

DA

Dopamine

DAT

DA transporter

DFC

Dorsal frontal cortex

DOPAC

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid

E

Embryonic day

EAAT

Excitatory amino acid transporter

GLT

Glutamate transporter

HPA

Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal

HPG

Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal

HVA

Homovanillic acid

l-DOPA

l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine

MAOB

Monoamine oxidase B

mdDA

Mesodiencephalic dopaminergic

mGluR

Metabotropic glutamate receptor

MPC

Medial prefrontal cortex

NAc

Nucleus accumbens

NAc-C

Nucleus accumbens core

NAc-S

Nucleus accumbens shell

NMDA

N-methyl-d-aspartic acid

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PFC

Prefrontal cortex

PND

Postnatal days

POA

Preoptic area

PS

Prenatal stress

SN

Substantia nigra

SNc

Substantia nigra pars compacta

TH

Tyrosine hydroxylase

TF

Transcription factors

VGluT2

Vesicular transporter of glutamate

VMAT2

Vesicular monoamine transporter 2

VTA

Ventral tegmental area

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos J. Baier
    • 1
  • María R. Katunar
    • 1
  • Ezequiela Adrover
    • 1
  • María Eugenia Pallarés
    • 1
  • Marta C. Antonelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y BioquímicaUniversidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations