Effects of light environment on maize in hillside agroforestry systems of Nepal
Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important staple food in the mid-hills region of Nepal. The mid-hills are characterized by steeply sloping land and complex farming systems where crops, livestock and trees are inseparable components, and maize has to compete with trees grown for fodder, fuel wood, building materials and other purposes in a landscape severely constrained for agricultural purposes. This paper reports the effects of the presence of trees growing on crop terrace risers on bari (upper-slope, rainfed) land on growth and yield of maize grown on terrace benches. Maize performance was compared with and without tree and artificial shade to determine its responses above and below ground to such limiting factors. Mean photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) incident on maize in farm conditions was lower than 700 μmol m-2 s-1, well below the light saturation point for maize (1,500 μmol m−2 s−1). Grain yield was reduced by 33% under tree shade and by 43% under artificial shade compared with natural (unshaded) conditions. As the light environment is sub-optimal for maize, the crop rarely achieved maximum rates of photosynthesis. Farmers claim that local landraces are better adapted to shade than station-bred genotypes, but there was no evidence of varietal effects upon rates of photosynthesis. However, there was some evidence that there were varietal adaptations to shade for other factors such as greater numbers of leaves and more competitive rooting patterns. Maize varieties with deeper root systems and adapted to low light conditions are required if productivity in these complex systems is to be improved. The findings of this study should be useful to breeders in developing maize genotypes suitable for the complex hillside systems of Nepal, thereby improving food security.
KeywordsMaize Zea mays Agroforestry Photosynthesis Hillside systems Shade
We thank the farmers of Marga, Patle and Fakchamara for their co-operation and inputs in running on-farm trials. Help from Messrs P. B. Baruwal, P. P. Poudel, R. B. Katuwal, D.P. Sherchan and P. P. Khatiwada is gratefully acknowledged. We also benefited from interactions with Dr Joel Ransom, a CIMMYT Agronomist based in Nepal at the time of this research. We would also like to thank Drs. Kevin Pixley, and Marianne Banziger CIMMYT, for their encouragement and guidance in preparing this paper. The authors appreciate the assistance of Mr. Surath Pradhan in editing figures. Thanks are also due to SDC for the support of maize research and development in the hills of Nepal. This publication is an output from a research project partly funded by the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID) for the benefit of developing countries (Project No. R7281, Plant Sciences Research Programme). The views expressed are not necessarily those of DFID.
- Duncan, W. G. (1980). Maize. In L. T. Evans (Ed.), Crop physiology (pp. 23–50). UK: University Press Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Ephrath, J. E., Wang, R. F., Terashima, K., Hesketh, J. D., Huck, M. G., & Hummel. (1993). Shading effect on soybean and corn. Biotronics, 22, 15–24.Google Scholar
- Morgan, D. C., & Smith, H. (1981). Non-photosynthetic responses to light quality. In O. L. Lange, P. S. Nobel, C. B. Osmond, & H. Ziegler (Eds.), Encyclopedia of plant physiology: physiological plant ecology. I. Responses to the physical environment (pp. 108–134). Berlin: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
- Smith, H. (1986). The perception of light quality. In R. E. Kendrick & G. H. M. Kronenberg (Eds.), Photomorphogenesis in plants (pp. 187–216). Dortrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
- Stirling, C. M., Rodrigo, V. H., & Emberru, J. (1993). Chilling and photosynthetic productivity of field grown maize (Zea mays); changes in the parameters of the light-response curve, canopy leaf CO2 assimilation rate and crop radiation-use efficiency. Photosynthesis Research, 38, 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thapa, B. (1994). Farmers’ ecological knowledge about the management and use of farmland tree fodder resources in the middle hills of eastern Nepal. Ph.D. Thesis. Bangor: University of Wales.Google Scholar
- Tiwari, T. P., Virk, D. S., & Sinclair, F. L. (2009). Rapid gains in yield and adoption of new maize varieties for complex hillside environments through farmer participation. I. Improving options through participatory varietal selection (PVS). Field Crops Research, 111, 137–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tiwari, T. P., Ortiz-Ferrara, G., Urrea, C., Katuwal, R. B., Koirala, K. B., Prasad, R. C., Gurung, D. B., Sharma, D., Hamal, B., Bhandari, B., & Thapa, M. (2009). Rapid gains in yield and adoption of new maize varieties for complex hillside environments through farmer participation. II. Scaling-up the adoption through community-based seed production (CBSP). Field Crops Research, 111, 144–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar