Phylogeography of einkorn landraces in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe: population structure and cultivation history

  • Hugo R. Oliveira
  • Huw Jones
  • Fiona Leigh
  • Diane L. Lister
  • Martin K. Jones
  • Leonor Peña-Chocarro
Original Paper


Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) was one of the first cereals to be domesticated in the Old World ca. 10,000 years ago and to spread towards Europe and North Africa. Its cultivation declined before the Iron Age and it remains today only as a relic crop in remote areas. To investigate if the geographic distribution of genetic diversity in modern einkorn landrace accessions could be informative about the movement of this crop during prehistory, we genotyped 50 accessions of einkorn from Europe, North Africa and the Near East. Using nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites and clustering methods, we detected two main gene pools in einkorn. The distribution of these lineages revealed differences between accessions from Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe and the Near East and suggests different regional dynamics in the spread of this crop.


Einkorn Phylogeography Microsatellites Mediterranean Agricultural history 

Supplementary material

12520_2011_76_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (16 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 16 kb)
12520_2011_76_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (392 kb)
ESM 2(PDF 392 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugo R. Oliveira
    • 1
  • Huw Jones
    • 2
  • Fiona Leigh
    • 2
  • Diane L. Lister
    • 1
  • Martin K. Jones
    • 3
  • Leonor Peña-Chocarro
    • 4
  1. 1.McDonald Institute for Archaeological ResearchUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.NIABCambridgeUK
  3. 3.Department of ArchaeologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  4. 4.G.I. Arqueobiología, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales (CSIC)MadridSpain

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