Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms and Children’s Feelings of Happiness and Depression: Mediating Roles of Interpersonal Relationships

  • Wan Ding
  • Jocelyn Meza
  • Xiuyun LinEmail author
  • Ting He
  • Hui Chen
  • Yulong Wang
  • Shaozheng Qin


Children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are at increased risk for developing severe negative emotional outcomes later in life. However, positive emotional outcomes are less studied. In the current study, we examine the longitudinal effects of ODD symptoms on both children’s feelings of happiness and depression from the dual-factor perspective of mental health. According to interpersonal perspectives of psychological symptoms, poor interpersonal relationships often play a critical role in the process of how children’s behavioral problems develop into severe emotional outcomes. Thus, Children’s relationships with parents, teachers, and peers were tested as mediators in these effects. Participants included 256 children with ODD were recruited in North, Middle, and South of Mainland China, along with their parents and teachers, and were assessed at three time points roughly two years apart. Results revealed that more severe ODD symptoms at Time 1 were related to more subsequent depressive symptoms and less happiness at Time 3. Moreover, father-child attachment, mother-child attachment, and peer relationships mediated the link between ODD symptoms and feelings of happiness while father-child attachment mediated the link between ODD symptoms and depressive symptoms. These findings reveal the importance of focusing on ODD-children’s feelings of happiness as well as depression and highlight the critical role of improving interpersonal functioning for children with ODD in protecting children from developing emotional impairments. Moreover, among all interpersonal relationships, high quality of father-child relationship needs to be mostly valued for Chinese families of children with ODD.


Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms Happiness Depression Interpersonal relationships Longitudinal mediation 



The study described in this report was Funded by Beijing 13th “Five” Education Sciences Planning (BAEA17039). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of Beijing Office for Education Sciences Planning. We are appreciative of the parents, children, and teachers who participated in our study and the people who assisted in data collection.


  1. Adrian, M., Zeman, J., Erdley, C., Lisa, L., & Sim, L. (2011). Emotional dysregulation and interpersonal difficulties as risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury in adolescent girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(3), 389–400. Scholar
  2. Albieri, E., Visani, D., Offidani, E., Ottolini, F., & Ruini, C. (2009). Well-being therapy in children with emotional and behavioral disturbances: A pilot investigation. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78(6), 387–390. Scholar
  3. Alto, M., Handley, E., Rogosch, F., Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. (2018). Maternal relationship quality and peer social acceptance as mediators between child maltreatment and adolescent depressive symptoms: Gender differences. Journal of Adolescence, 63, 19–28. Scholar
  4. Amato, P. R. (1994). Father-child relations, mother-child relations, and offspring psychological well-being in early adulthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56(4), 1031–1042. Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Antaramian, S. P., Scott Huebner, E., Hills, K. J., & Valois, R. F. (2010). A dual-factor model of mental health: Toward a more comprehensive understanding of youth functioning. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(4), 462–472. Scholar
  8. Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(5), 427–454. Scholar
  9. Asher, S. R., Hymel, S., & Renshaw, P. D. (1984). Loneliness in children. Child Development, 55(4), 1456–1464. Scholar
  10. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  11. Behnke, A. O., Plunkett, S. W., Sands, T., & Bámaca-Colbert, M. Y. (2011). The relationship between Latino adolescents’ perceptions of discrimination, neighborhood risk, and parenting on self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(7), 1179–1197. Scholar
  12. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  13. Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Attachment (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books (AZ).Google Scholar
  14. Boylan, K., Vaillancourt, T., Boyle, M., & Szatmari, P. (2007). Comorbidity of internalizing disorders in children with oppositional defiant disorder. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 16(8), 484–494. Scholar
  15. Branje, S. J. T., Hale, W. W., Frijns, T., & Meeus, W. H. J. (2010). Longitudinal associations between perceived parent-child relationship quality and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(6), 751–763. Scholar
  16. Brief, A. P., Butcher, A. H., George, J. M., & Link, K. E. (1993). Integrating bottom-up and top-down theories of subjective well-being: The case of health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 646–653. Scholar
  17. Brumariu, L. E., & Kerns, K. A. (2010). Parent–child attachment and internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence: A review of empirical findings and future directions. Development and Psychopathology, 22(1), 177–203. Scholar
  18. Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., Lahey, B. B., & Rathouz, P. J. (2005). Developmental transitions among affective and behavioral disorders in adolescent boys. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 46(11), 1200–1210. Scholar
  19. Burke, J. D., Hipwell, A. E., & Loeber, R. (2010). Dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder as predictors of depression and conduct disorder in preadolescent girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(5), 484–492. Scholar
  20. Burke, J. D., Rowe, R., & Boylan, K. (2014). Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in young adult men. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 55(3), 264–272. Scholar
  21. Buyse, E., Verschueren, K., Doumen, S., Van, D. J., & Maes, F. (2008). Classroom problem behavior and teacher-child relationships in kindergarten: The moderating role of classroom climate. Journal of School Psychology, 46(4), 367–391. Scholar
  22. Carter, J. S., Smith, S., Bostick, S., & Grant, K. E. (2014). Mediating effects of parent–child relationships and body image in the prediction of internalizing symptoms in urban youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(4), 554–567. Scholar
  23. Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65, 1111–1119. Scholar
  24. Chen, X., Hastings, P. D., Rubin, K. H., Chen, H., Cen, G., & Stewart, S. L. (1998). Child-rearing attitudes and behavioral inhibition in Chinese and Canadian toddlers: A cross-cultural study. Developmental Psychology, 34(4), 677–686. Scholar
  25. Cohn, A. M., & Adesman, A. (2015). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In L. A. Adler, T. J. Spencer, & T. E. Wilens (Eds.), Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults and children (pp. 139–149). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Copeland, W. E., Shanahan, L., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2009). Childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders as predictors of young adult disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(7), 764–772. Scholar
  27. Coy, K., Speltz, M. L., DeKlyen, M., & Jones, K. (2001). Social–cognitive processes in preschool boys with and without oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(2), 107–119. Scholar
  28. Demir, M., Özdemir, M., & Weitekamp, L. A. (2007). Looking to happy tomorrows with friends: Best and close friendships as they predict happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8(2), 243–271. Scholar
  29. Drabick, D. A. G., & Kendall, P. C. (2010). Developmental psychopathology and the diagnosis of mental health problems among youth. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17(4), 272–280. Scholar
  30. Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  31. Frankel, F., & Feinberg, D. (2002). Social problems associated with ADHD vs. ODD in children referred for friendship problems. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 33(2), 125–146. Scholar
  32. Gershoff, E. T., Grogan-Kaylor, A., Lansford, J. E., Chang, L., Zelli, A., Deater-Deckard, K., & Dodge, K. A. (2010). Parent discipline practices in an international sample: Associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness. Child Development, 81(2), 487–502. Scholar
  33. González-Carrasco, M., Vaqué, C., Malo, S., Crous, G., Casas, F., & Figuer, C. (2018). A qualitative longitudinal study on the well-being of children and adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 1–21. Scholar
  34. Greene, R. W., Biederman, J., Zerwas, S., Monuteaux, M. C., Goring, J. C., & Faraone, S. V. (2002). Psychiatric comorbidity, family dysfunction, and social impairment in referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(7), 1214–1224. Scholar
  35. Groh, A. M., Roisman, G. I., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Fearon, R. P. (2012). The significance of insecure and disorganized attachment for children’s internalizing symptoms: A meta-analytic study. Child Development, 83(2), 591–610. Scholar
  36. Hamilton, S. S., & Armando, J. (2008). Oppositional defiant disorder. Australian Family Physician, 37(6), 402–405 Scholar
  37. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2010). Can instructional and emotional support in the first-grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure? Child Development, 76(5), 949–967. Scholar
  38. Hazell, P. (2010). Review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder. Australasian Psychiatry, 18(6), 556–559. Scholar
  39. Herres, J., & Kobak, R. (2015). The role of parent, teacher, and peer events in maintaining depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(2), 325–337. Scholar
  40. Hipwell, A. E., Stepp, S., Feng, X., Burke, J., Battista, D. R., Loeber, R., & Keenan, K. (2011). Impact of oppositional defiant disorder dimensions on the temporal ordering of conduct problems and depression across childhood and adolescence in girls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(10), 1099–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hu, L. t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. Scholar
  42. Jin, C., Zou, H., Zeng, R., & Dou, D. (2010). The trait of attachment and the effect of attachment on social adjustment of medium school students: Parents intimacy as a moderator. Psychological Development and Education (Chinese), 26(6), 577–583 Scholar
  43. Joseph, S. (2006). Measurement in depression: Positive psychology and the statistical bipolarity of depression and happiness. Measurement, 4, 156–161. Scholar
  44. Joseph, S. (2007). Is the CES-D a measure of happiness? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76(1), 60. Scholar
  45. Joseph, S., & Lewis, C. A. (1998). The depression–happiness scale: Reliability and validity of a bipolar self-report scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54, 537–544.<537::AID-JCLP15>3.0.CO;2-G.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Joseph, S., & Wood, A. (2010). Assessment of positive functioning in clinical psychology: Theoretical and practical issues. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 830–838. Scholar
  47. Keyes, C. L. M. (2005). Mental illness and / or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 539–548. Scholar
  48. Kiesner, J. (2002). Depressive symptoms in early adolescence: Their relations with classroom problem behavior. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12(4), 463–478. Scholar
  49. Kim, U., & Choi, S. (2014). Individualism, collectivism, and child development: A Korean perspective. In P. Greenfeld & R. Cocking (Eds.), Cross-cultural roots of minority child development (pp. 227–258). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kim, S., & Fong, V. L. (2013). How parents help children with homework in China: Narratives across the life span. Asia Pacific Education Review, 14(4), 581–592. Scholar
  51. Kochanska, G., Brock, R. L., Chen, K.-H., Aksan, N., & Anderson, S. W. (2015). Paths from mother–child and father–child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: A longitudinal study from infancy to age 10. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(4), 721–734. Scholar
  52. Lavigne, J. V., Cicchetti, C., Gibbons, R. D., Binns, H. J., Larsen, L., & DeVito, C. (2001). Oppositional defiant disorder with onset in preschool years: Longitudinal stability and pathways to other disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(12), 1393–1400. Scholar
  53. Lavigne, J. V., Bryant, F. B., Hopkins, J., & Gouze, K. R. (2015). Dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder in young children: Model comparisons, gender and longitudinal invariance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(3), 423–439. Scholar
  54. Lavigne, J. V., Gouze, K. R., Bryant, F. B., & Hopkins, J. (2014). Dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder in young children: Heterotypic continuity with anxiety and depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(6), 937–951. Scholar
  55. Leung, K., Brew, F. P., Zhang, Z. X., & Zhang, Y. (2011). Harmony and conflict: A cross-cultural investigation in China and Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(5), 795–816. Scholar
  56. Li, X., & Lamb, M. E. (2015). Fathering in Chinese culture: Traditions and transitions. In J. L. Roopnarine & J. L. Roopnarine (Eds.), Fathers across cultures: The importance, roles, and diverse practices of dads (pp. 273–306). Santa Barbara: Praeger/ ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  57. Li, W., Li, L., Lin, X., Liu, W., Yang, P., & Yao, J. (2014). Parent-child relationship, teacher-child relationship and peer relationship in children with oppositional defiant disorder. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22(3), 428–432. Scholar
  58. Li, L., Lin, X., Hinshaw, S. P., Du, H., Qin, S., & Fang, X. (2018). Longitudinal associations between oppositional defiant symptoms and interpersonal relationships among Chinese children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(6), 1267–1281. Scholar
  59. Liu, Y., Li, X., Chen, L., & Qu, Z. (2015). Perceived positive teacher–student relationship as a protective factor for Chinese left-behind children's emotional and behavioural adjustment. International Journal of Psychology, 50(5), 354–362. Scholar
  60. Lynn, S., Carroll, A., Houghton, S., & Cobham, V. (2013). Peer relations and emotion regulation of children with emotional and behavioral difficulties with and without a developmental disorder. Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties, 18, 297–309. Scholar
  61. Martin, A. J., Cumming, T. M., O’Neill, S. C., & Strnadová, I. (2017). Social and emotional competence and at-risk children’s well-being: the roles of personal and interpersonal agency for children with ADHD, emotional and behavioral disorder, learning disability, and developmental disability. In Social and Emotional Learning in Australia and the Asia-Pacific (pp. 123–145). Springer, Singapore.Google Scholar
  62. McClowry, S. G., Rodriguez, E. T., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Spellmann, M. E., Carlson, A., & Snow, D. L. (2013). Teacher/student interactions and classroom behavior: The role of student temperament and gender. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 27(3), 283–301. Scholar
  63. Migliorini, L., Tassara, T., & Rania, N. (2018). A study of subjective well-being and life satisfaction in Italy: How are children doing at 8 years of age? Child Indicators Research, 1–21. Scholar
  64. Munkvold, L. H., Lundervold, A. J., & Manger, T. (2011). Oppositional defiant disorder—Gender differences in co-occurring symptoms of mental health problems in a general population of children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(4), 577–587. Scholar
  65. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus User’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén and Muthén.Google Scholar
  66. Navarro, D., Montserrat, C., Malo, S., González, M., Casas, F., & Crous, G. (2017). Subjective well-being: What do adolescents say? Child & Family Social Work, 22(1), 175–184. Scholar
  67. Newland, L. A., & Coyl, D. D. (2010). Fathers’ role as attachment figures: An interview with sir Richard Bowlby. Early Child Development and Care, 180(1–2), 25–32. Scholar
  68. Newland, L. A., Coyl, D. D., & Chen, H. H. (2010). Fathering and attachment in the USA and Taiwan: Contextual predictors and child outcomes. Early Child Development and Care, 180(1–2), 173–191. Scholar
  69. Nock, M. K., Kazdin, A. E., Hiripi, E., & Kessler, R. C. (2007). Lifetime prevalence, correlates, and persistence of oppositional defiant disorder: Results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(7), 703–713. Scholar
  70. Nolan, S. A., Flynn, C., & Garber, J. (2003). Prospective relations between rejection and depression in young adolescents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(4), 745–755. Scholar
  71. Paykel, E. S., & Weissman, M. M. (1973). Social adjustment and depression: A longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28(5), 659–663. Scholar
  72. Peasgood, T., Bhardwaj, A., Biggs, K., Brazier, J. E., Coghill, D., Cooper, C. L., et al. (2016). The impact of ADHD on the health and well-being of ADHD children and their siblings. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 25(11), 1–15. Scholar
  73. Pianta, R. (2001). STRS: Student-teacher relationship scale. Professional manual. Charlotscille: University of Virginia.Google Scholar
  74. Pilkington, P., Rominov, H., Brown, H. K., & Dennis, C. L. (2019). Systematic review of the impact of coparenting interventions on paternal coparenting behaviour. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 75(1), 17–29. Scholar
  75. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401. Scholar
  76. Rowe, R., Maughan, B., & Eley, T. C. (2006). Links between antisocial behavior and depressed mood: The role of life events and attributional style. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(3), 283–292. Scholar
  77. Rudolph, K., Flynn, M., & Abaied, J. (2008). A developmental perspective on interpersonal theories of youth depression. In J. Abela & B. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 79–102). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  78. Sacks, G., & Kern, L. (2008). A comparison of quality of life variables for students with emotional and behavioral disorders and students without disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 17(1), 111–127. Scholar
  79. Santini, Z. I., Koyanagi, A., Tyrovolas, S., Mason, C., & Haro, J. M. (2015). The association between social relationships and depression: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 175, 53–65. Scholar
  80. Schroevers, M. J., Sanderman, R., Van, S. E., & Ranchor, A. V. (2000). The evaluation of the center for epidemiologic studies depression (CES-D) scale: Depressed and positive affect in cancer patients and healthy reference subjects. Quality of Life Research, 9(9), 1015–1029. Scholar
  81. Seligman, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14. Scholar
  82. Seward, R. R., & Stanley-Stevens, L. (2014). Fathers, fathering, and fatherhood across cultures. In H. Selin (Ed.), Parenting across cultures: Childrearing, motherhood and fatherhood in nonwestern cultures (pp. 459–474). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shafer, A. B. (2006). Meta-analysis of the factor structures of four depression questionnaires: Beck, CES-D, Hamilton, and Zung. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(1), 123–146. Scholar
  84. Shwalb, D. W., Nakazawa, J., Yamamoto, T., & Hyun, J. (2010). Fathering in Japan, China, and Korea: Changing contexts, images and roles. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of father in child development (5th ed., pp. 341–387). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  85. Sin, N. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2010). Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 467–487. Scholar
  86. Sullivan, H. S. (1968). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  87. Sullivan, H. S. (2013). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. Routledge.Google Scholar
  88. Taylor, T. K., Burns, G. L., Rusby, J. C., & Foster, E. M. (2006). Oppositional defiant disorder toward adults and oppositional defiant disorder toward peers: Initial evidence for two separate constructs. Psychological Assessment, 18(4), 439–443. Scholar
  89. Theule, J., Germain, S. M., Cheung, K., Hurl, K. E., & Markel, C. (2016). Conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder and attachment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, 2(2), 232–255. Scholar
  90. Tseng, W. L., Kawabata, Y., & Gau, S. S. F. (2011). Social adjustment among Taiwanese children with symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD comorbid with ODD. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 42(2), 134–151. Scholar
  91. Verschueren, K., Doumen, S., & Buyse, E. (2012). Relationships with mother, teacher, and peers: Unique and joint effects on young children’s self-concept. Attachment & Human Development, 14, 233–248. Scholar
  92. Videon, T. M. (2005). Parent-child relations and children’s psychological well-being: Do dads matter? Journal of Family Issues, 26(1), 55–78. Scholar
  93. Walsh, S. D., Harel-Fisch, Y., & Fogel-Grinvald, H. (2010). Parents, teachers and peer relations as predictors of risk behaviors and mental well-being among immigrant and Israeli born adolescents. Social Science & Medicine, 70(7), 976–984. Scholar
  94. Wei, X., & Li, Q. (2013). The Confucian value of harmony and its influence on Chinese social interaction. Cross-cultural Communication, 9(1), 60–66. Scholar
  95. Wu, E. H. (2006). Nurture over nature: A reflective review of Confucian philosophy on learning and talented performance. Gifted Education International, 21(2–3), 181–189. Scholar
  96. Xu, Y., Farver, J. A., Schwartz, D., & Chang, L. (2004). Social networks and aggressive behaviour in Chinese children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(5), 401–410. Scholar
  97. Zimmerman, M. A., & Arunkumar, R. (1994). Resiliency research: Implications for schools and policy. Social Policy Report, 8, 1–17. Scholar
  98. Zou, H., Qu, Z., & Ye, Y. (2007). The characteristics of teacher-student relationships and its relationship with school adjustment of students. Psychological Development and Education (Chinese), 23(4), 77–82 Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wan Ding
    • 1
  • Jocelyn Meza
    • 2
  • Xiuyun Lin
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ting He
    • 1
  • Hui Chen
    • 1
  • Yulong Wang
    • 4
  • Shaozheng Qin
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Developmental Psychology, Faculty of PsychologyBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, Faculty of PsychologyBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyHunan Normal UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations