Targeting Frailty in Heart Failure

  • Susan M. JosephEmail author
  • Michael W. Rich
Heart Failure (W Tang, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Heart Failure

Opinion statement

Frailty is a systemic syndrome characterized by impaired physiologic reserve, slowness, weakness, and wasting. It is associated with, but distinct from, aging, disability, and multimorbidity. Frailty is extremely common in patients with heart failure and portends a worse prognosis. The two syndromes worsen one another via complex molecular and cellular mechanisms which are not fully understood but include increased levels of stress hormones and cytokines. In this article, we discuss the mechanisms of frailty and review common frailty metrics. We review and summarize the literature on the impact of frailty in heart failure and discuss treatment and management options.


Frailty Heart failure Fried criteria Sarcopenia Multimorbidity 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Susan M. Joseph reports honoraria from St. Jude Medical and Amgen.

Michael W. Rich declares no potential conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Circulatory Support ProgramBaylor University Medical CenterDallasUSA
  2. 2.Cardiovascular DivisionWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

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