Fractures in Children with Cerebral Palsy
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Children with moderate to severe cerebral palsy are at increased risk of sustaining fracture following minimal trauma. Such fractures predominantly occur in lower limb bones and are associated with low bone mineral density. Risk factors for fracture in this group include nonambulatory status, anticonvulsant use, presence of a joint contractures, immobilization after surgery, and poor nutrition. Aims of this review are to describe the prevalence and pathogenesis of fractures in nonambulant children with cerebral palsy. Interventions and treatments that improve low bone mineral density and which may help to reduce the fracture risk in this population are also discussed.
KeywordsCerebral palsy Fractures Bone mineral density Physical therapy Bisphosphonates
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Conflict of Interest
M. Z. Mughal has received honoraria from Novartis, Alexion, and Danone.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All studies by the author involving animal and/or human subjects were performed after approval by the appropriate institutional review boards. When required, written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
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