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Internal and Emergency Medicine

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 387–406 | Cite as

Italian intersociety consensus on DOAC use in internal medicine

  • Domenico Prisco
  • Walter Ageno
  • Cecilia Becattini
  • Armando D’Angelo
  • Giovanni Davì
  • Raimondo De Cristofaro
  • Francesco Dentali
  • Giovanni Di Minno
  • Anna Falanga
  • Gualberto Gussoni
  • Luca Masotti
  • Gualtiero Palareti
  • Pasquale Pignatelli
  • Roberto M. Santi
  • Francesca Santilli
  • Mauro Silingardi
  • Antonella Tufano
  • Francesco Violi
  • SIMI (Italian Society of Internal Medicine)
  • FADOI (Federation of Associations of Hospital Doctors on Internal Medicine)
  • SISET (Italian Society for the Study of Haemostasis and Thrombosis)
CE - ORIGINAL

Abstract

The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are drugs used in clinical practice since 2009 for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation, and for the treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism. The four DOACs, including the three factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) and one direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran) provide oral anticoagulation therapy alternatives to Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Despite their clear advantages, the DOACs require on the part of the internist a thorough knowledge of their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics to ensure their correct use, laboratory monitoring and the appropriate management of adverse events. This document represents a consensus paper on the use of DOACs by representatives of three Italian scientific societies: the Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), the Federation of the Associations of Hospital Managers (FADOI), and the Society for the Study of Haemostasis and Thrombosis (SISET). This document formulates expert opinion guidance for pragmatic managing, monitoring and reversing the anticoagulant effect of DOACs in both chronic and emergency settings. This practical guidance may help the internist to create adequate protocols for patients hospitalized ion internal medicine wards, where patients are often elderly subjects affected by poly-morbidities and renal insufficiency, and, thus, require particular attention to drug–drug interactions and peri-procedural protocols.

Keywords

Atrial fibrillation Venous thromboembolism Pulmonary embolism Venous thrombosis Internist Drug interactions Elderly Direct oral anticoagulant Novel oral anticoagulant 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The assistance of Amanda Mannucci in the preparation of final draft is acknowledged. The authors thank the Presidents of the three Societies participating in this Consensus: Francesco Perticone, President of SIMI (Italian Society of Internal Medicine); Mauro Campanini, President of FADOI (Federation of Associations of Hospital Doctors on Internal Medicine); Anna Falanga, President of SISET (Italian Society for the Study of Haemostasis and Thrombosis).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

DP declares fees for participations in editorial boards and lectures by Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, BMS-Pfizer and Daiichi Sankyo given to his Institution. WA declares research support by Bayer and Boehringer Ingelheim; he also declare participation in advisory boards for Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo and BMS-Pfizer. CB declares speakers’ fees by Bayer, Bristol Meyer Squibb and Boehringer Ingelheim. AD declares speakers’ fees by Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, BMS-Pfizer and Daiichi Sankyo given to his Institution. FD declares a consultance activity for Bayer and Boehringer Ingelheim and participations in advisory boards of Boehringer Ingelheim, BMS-Pfizer. AF declare a role of speakers’ bureau for Pfizer, Aspen and Rovi. GP declares participation in advisory board or speakers’ fees by Alfa-Wassermann, Daiichi-Sankyo, Pfizer, Roche, Siemens and Werfen. PP declares speakers’ fees by Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, BMS-Pfizer and Daiichi Sankyo FS declares fesearch support by Bayer. GD, RD, GDM, GG, LM, RMS, MS, AT, FV declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

None.

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Copyright information

© SIMI 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Domenico Prisco
    • 1
  • Walter Ageno
    • 2
  • Cecilia Becattini
    • 3
  • Armando D’Angelo
    • 4
  • Giovanni Davì
    • 5
  • Raimondo De Cristofaro
    • 6
  • Francesco Dentali
    • 2
  • Giovanni Di Minno
    • 7
  • Anna Falanga
    • 8
  • Gualberto Gussoni
    • 9
  • Luca Masotti
    • 10
  • Gualtiero Palareti
    • 11
  • Pasquale Pignatelli
    • 12
  • Roberto M. Santi
    • 13
  • Francesca Santilli
    • 5
  • Mauro Silingardi
    • 14
  • Antonella Tufano
    • 7
  • Francesco Violi
    • 12
  • SIMI (Italian Society of Internal Medicine)
  • FADOI (Federation of Associations of Hospital Doctors on Internal Medicine)
  • SISET (Italian Society for the Study of Haemostasis and Thrombosis)
  1. 1.Department of Experimental and Clinical MedicineUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineInsubria UniversityVareseItaly
  3. 3.Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine-Stroke UnitUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  4. 4.Coagulation Service and Thrombosis Research UnitScientific Institute San RaffaeleMilanItaly
  5. 5.Clinica Medica, Department of Medicine and Aging SciencesUniversity of Chieti G.D’AnnunzioChietiItaly
  6. 6.Institute of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Center for Haemorrhagic and Thrombotic Diseases, Haematology, Foundation Policlinico universitario “Agostino Gemelli”Catholic University of the Sacred HeartRomeItaly
  7. 7.Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical Medicine and SurgeryAOU Policlinico Federico IINaplesItaly
  8. 8.Department of Immunohematology and Transfusion Medicine, and the Thrombosis and Hemostasis CenterHospital Papa Giovanni XXIIIBergamoItaly
  9. 9.Department of Clinical ResearchFADOIMilanItaly
  10. 10.Internal MedicineSanta Maria Nuova HospitalFlorenceItaly
  11. 11.Cardiovascular DiseasesUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  12. 12.Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties“La Sapienza” University of RomeRomeItaly
  13. 13.Haemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, HaematologyAz. Osp. “SS.Antonio e Biagio e C. Arrigo”AlessandriaItaly
  14. 14.Internal Medicine Unit A - Ospedale MaggioreAUSL BolognaBolognaItaly

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