Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 58, Issue 9, pp 1019–1027 | Cite as

Spatial variability of cyanobacterial community composition in Sanya Bay as determined by DGGE fingerprinting and multivariate analysis

  • Juan Ling
  • YanYing Zhang
  • JunDe DongEmail author
  • YouShao Wang
  • Hui Huang
  • Lei Chen
  • XiaoFang Huang
  • LiJuan Long
  • Si Zhang
Open Access
Article Oceanology


The cyanobacterial communities in the surface and bottom waters of Sanya Bay were investigated on April 24 and 25, 2010. Flow cytometry showed that the total cyanobacterial abundance in the surface and bottom layers ranged from 0.7×104 to 2.38×104 cells mL−1 and from 1×104 to 1.8×104 cells mL−1, respectively. Cyanobacterial diversity was analyzed using a molecular fingerprinting technique called denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), followed by DNA sequencing. The results were then interpreted through multivariate statistical analysis. Differences in the compositions of cyanobacterial communities were observed in the surface and bottom waters at the same station, with some bands obtained from both the surface and bottom layers, whereas some bands were present only in one layer. The predominant cyanobacterial species of the excised DGGE bands were related to Synechococcus or Synechococcus-like species (56.2%). Other phylogenetic groups identified included Chroococcidiopsis (6.3%), Cyanobium (6.3%) and some unclassified cyanobacteria (31.2%). A redundancy analysis (RDA) was conducted to reveal the relationships between the cyanobacterial community composition and environmental factors. Analysis results showed that the spatial variations in the cyanobacterial community composition in surface waters was significantly related to chlorophyll a (Chla), the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate and phosphate (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the spatial variations in the bottom waters was significantly affected by nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate (P<0.05). Environmental parameters could explain 99.3% and 58.3% of the variations in the surface and bottom layers, respectively.


cyanobacterial community composition PCR-DGGE Synechococcus redundancy analysis 


  1. 1.
    Hoffman L. Marine cyanobacteria in tropical regions: Diversity and ecology. Eur J Phycol, 1999, 34: 371–379Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Capone D G. The marine nitrogen cycle. In: Kirchman D L, ed. Microbial Ecology of the Oceans. New York: Wiley, 2000. 455–494Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zehr J P. Nitrogen fixation by marine cyanobacteria. Trends Microbiol, 2011, 19: 162–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Capone D G. Marine nitrogen fixation: What’s the fuss? Curr Opin Microbiol, 2001, 4: 341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yang B, Dong J D, Yang Z H, et al. Chemical constituents of cyanobacteria Lyngbya sp. from South China Sea (In Chinese). J Trop Oceanogr, 2007, 26: 67–69Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    El-Bestawy E A, Abd El-Salam A Z, Mansy H A R. Potential use of environmental cyanobacterial species in bioremediation of lindane-contaminated effluents. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad, 2007, 59: 180–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ke Z X, Huang L M, Tan Y H, et al. Plankton community structure and diversity in coral reefs area of Sanya Bay, Hainan Province, China. Biod Sci, 2011, 19: 696–701Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shi Q, Zhao M X, Zhang Q M, et al. Estimate of carbonate production by scleractinian corals at Luhuitou fringing reef, Sanya, China. Chin Sci Bull, 2009, 54: 696–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang Q M, Shi Q, Chen G, et al. Status monitoring and management strategy research of Luhuitou fringing reef of the Sanya reserve. Chin Sci Bull, 2006, 51(Suppl II): 71–77Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dong J D, Zhang Y Y, Wang Y S, et al. Spatial and seasonal variations of Cyanobacteria and their nitrogen fixation rates in Sanya Bay, South China Sea. Sci Mar, 2008, 72: 239–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dong J D, Wang H K, Zhang S, et al. Vertical distribution characteristics of seawater temperature and DIN in Sanya Bay (in Chinese). J Tropic Oceanol, 2002, 21: 40–47Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Muyzer G, de Waal E C, Uitterlinden A G. Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplified genes encoding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol, 1993, 59: 695–700Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kataoka T, Hodoki Y, Koji S, et al. Tempo-spatial patterns of bacterial community composition in the western North Pacific Ocean. J marine Syst, 2009, 77: 197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China and China National Stantardization Management Committee. The Specialties for Marine monitoring (GB17378.4-1998, China) (in Chinese). Beijing: Standards Press of China, 1998. 142–162Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang L M, Tan Y H, Song X Y, et al. The status of the ecological environment and a proposed protection strategy in Sanya Bay, Hainan Island, China. Mar Pollut Bull, 2003, 47: 180–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhou W, Li T, Cai C H, et al. Spatial and temporal dynamics of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton biomass in Sanya Bay, northern South China Sea. J Environ Sci-China, 2009, 21: 595–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bostrom K H, Simu K, Hagstrom A, et al. Optimization of DNA extraction for quantitative marine bacterioplankton community analysis. Limnol Oceanogr Meth, 2004, 2: 365–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lepère C, Wilmotte A, Meyer B. Molecular diversity of Microcystis strains (Cyanophyceae, Chroococcales) based on 16S rDNA sequences. Syst Geogr Pl, 2000, 70: 275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nübel U, Garcia-Pichel F, Muyzer G. PCR primers to amplify 16S rRNA genes from cyanobacteria. Appl Environ Microb, 1997, 63: 3327–3332Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Muyzer G, Smalla K. Application of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) in microbial ecology. Anton Leeuw Int J G, 1998, 73: 127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maidak B L, Cole J R, Parker C T, et al. A new version of the RDP (Ribosomal Database Project). Nucleic Acids Res, 1999, 27: 171–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Altschul S F, Madden T L, Schaeffer A A, et al. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: A new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res, 1997, 25: 3389–3402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, et al. MEGA4: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol, 2007, 24: 1596–1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tamura K, Nei M, Kumar S. Prospects for inferring very large phylogenies by using the neighbor-joining method. Prolc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2004, 101: 11030–11035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Saitou N, Nei M. The neighbor-joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol, 1987, 4: 406–425Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang Y Y, Dong J D, Yang Z H, et al. Phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in mangrove sediments assessed by PCR-DGGE. Arch Microbiol, 2008, 190: 19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang J C, Zeng G M, Chen Y N, et al. Effects of physico-chemical parameters on the bacterial and fungal communities during agricultural waste composting. Bioresource Technol, 2011, 102: 2950–2956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lepš J, Šmilauer P. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data Using CANOCO. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. 43–75Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Luan Q S, Sun J, Song S Q, et al. Canonical correspondence analysis of summer phytoplankton community and its environment in the Yangtze River estuary China (in Chinese). J Plant Ecol, 2007, 31: 445–450Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fuller N J, Marie D, Partensky F. Clade-specific 16S ribosomal DNA oligonucleotides reveal the predominance of a single marine Synechococcus clade throughout a stratified water column in the Red Sea. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2003, 2430–2443Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Choi D H, Noh J H. Phylogenetic diversity of Synechococcus strains isolated from the East China Sea and the East Sea. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 2009, 69: 439–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liang W D, Yang Y J, Tang T Y, et al. Kuroshio in the Luzon Strait, J Geophys Res, 2008, 113: C08048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jezberova J. Phenotypic diversity and phylogeny of picocyanobacteria in mesotrophic and eutrophic freshwater reservoirs investigated by a cultivation-dependent polyphasic approach. The Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Ceske Budejovice: University of South Bohemia, 2006Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rohwer F, Breitbart M, Jara J, et al. Diversity of bacteria associated with the Caribbean coral Montastraea franksi. Coral Reefs, 2001, 20: 85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Murphy L S, Haugen E M. The distribution and abundance of phototrophic ultraplankton in the North Atlantic. Limnol Oceanogr, 1985, 30: 47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Iturriaga R, Mitchell B G. Chroococcoid cyanobacteria: A significant component in the food web dynamics of the open ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 1986, 28: 291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fewer D, Friedl T, Budel B. Chroococcidiopsis and heterocyst-differentiating cyanobacteria are each other’s closest living relatives. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2002, 23: 82–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang Y Y, Dong J D, Ling J, et al. Phytoplankton distribution and their relationship to environmental variables in Sanya Bay, South China Sea. Sci Mar, 2010, 74: 783–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yang Z H, Dong J D, Wu M L, et al. Structure characteristics of phytoplankton community at Sanya Bay (in Chinese). J Trop Oceanogr, 2007, 26: 62–66Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yan Q Y, Yu Y H, Feng W S, et al. Plankton community composition in Three Gorges Reservoir region revealed by PCR-DGGE and its relationships with environmental factors. J Environ Sci, 2008, 20: 732–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zeng J, Yang L Y, Du H W, et al. Bacterioplankton community structure in a eutrophic lake in relation to water chemistry. World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2009, 25: 763–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sipura J, Haukka K, Helminen H, et al. Effect of nutrient enrichment on bacterioplankton biomass and community composition in mesocosms in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic. J Plankton Res, 2005, 27: 1261–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2012

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Ling
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • YanYing Zhang
    • 1
    • 3
  • JunDe Dong
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • YouShao Wang
    • 2
  • Hui Huang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Lei Chen
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • XiaoFang Huang
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • LiJuan Long
    • 1
  • Si Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Marine Bio-resourses Sustainable Utilization, South China Sea Institute of OceanologyChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of OceanologyChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.National Experiment Station of Tropical Marine BiologyChinese Academy of SciencesSanyaChina
  4. 4.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations