Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: effect of synthesis reaction parameters on antimicrobial activity


In this work, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Galega officinalis extract using AgNO3 as a precursor was reported. The reaction parameters for the biosynthesis and efficiency in their antimicrobial control against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas syringae were determined. For biosynthesis, a central composite design combined with response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters (pH, AgNO3 and extract concentration), and the design was assessed through the size distribution, zeta potential and polydispersity index of the nanoparticles. The results demonstrated that at pH 11, 1.6 mM of AgNO3 and 15% vv−1 of G. officinalis extract were the optimal reaction parameters. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of small spherical silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial assays showed a high inhibitory effect against E. coli, S. aureus and P. syringae, and that effect was larger with silver nanoparticles of a smaller size (23 nm). This work demonstrates that G. officinalis extract is a feasible medium for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and that the control of the reaction parameters can determine the nanoparticle characteristics and therefore their antimicrobial effectiveness.

Graphical abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Ali M, Kim BD, Belfield K, Norman D, Brennan M, Ali GS (2016) Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia absinthium aqueous extract—A comprehensive study. Mater Sci Eng C 58:359–365

  2. Aziz W, Jassim HA (2018) A novel study of pH influence on Ag nanoparticles size with antibacterial and antifungal activity using green synthesis. World Sci News 97:139–152

  3. Baker C, Pradhan A, Pakstis L, Pochan DJ, Shah SI (2005) Synthesis and antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 5:244–249

  4. Chamakura K, Perez-Ballestero R, Luo Z, Bashir S, Liu J (2011) Comparison of bactericidal activities of silver nanoparticles with common chemical disinfectants. Colloids Surf B 84:88–96

  5. Champavier Y, Allais DP, Chulia AJ, Kaouadji M (2000) Acetylated and non-acetylated flavonol triglycosides from Galega officinalis. Chem Pharm Bull 48:281–282

  6. de Aragǎo AP, de Oliveira TM, Quelemes PV, Gomes PML, Carvalho AM, Sousa JAS, Cardoso VN, Quaresma P, de Souza JRAL, Alves DS (2016) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae and their antibacterial activity. Arab J Chem. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2016.04.014

  7. Dong C, Chuanliang C, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Wang X, Yang X, Zhou K, Xiao X, Yuan B (2017) Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum) extract mediated novel route for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Optik 130:162–170

  8. Durán N, Marcato PD, De Souza GIH, Alves OL, Esposito E (2007) Antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles produced by fungal process on textile fabrics and their effluent treatment. J Biomed Nanotechnol 3:203–208

  9. Durán N, Durán M, de Jesus MB, Seabra AB, Fávaro WJ, Nakazato G (2016) Silver nanoparticles: a new view on mechanistic aspects on antimicrobial activity. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 12:789–799

  10. Dzul-Erose MS, Cauich-Díaz MM, Raso-Lazcano TA, Avila-Rodriguez M, Reyes-Aguilera JA, González-Muñoz MP (2018) Aqueous leaf extracts of Cnidoscolus chayamansa (Mayan chaya) cultivated in Yucatán México Part II: uses for the phytomediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Mater Sci Eng C 91:838–852

  11. Feng HL, Gao XY, Zhang ZY, Ma JM (2010) Study on the crystalline structure and thermal stability of silver oxide films deposited by direct-current reactive magnetron sputtering methods. J Korean Phys Soc 56:1176–1179

  12. Gericke M, Pinches A (2006) Biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Hydrometallurgy 83:132–140

  13. Guan X, Yao H (2008) Optimization of Viscozyme L-assisted extraction of oat bran protein using response surface methodology. Food Chem 106:345–351

  14. Hamouda T, Baker JR (2000) Antimicrobial mechanism of action of surfactant lipid preparations in enteric Gram-negative bacilli. J Appl Microbiol 89:397–403

  15. Khalil MMH, Ismail EH, El-Baghdady KZ, Mohamed D (2014) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using olive leaf extract and its antibacterial activity. Arab J Chem 7:1131–1139

  16. Luka CD, Omoniwa BP (2012) Effect of some phytochemicals extracted from goat’s rue (Galega officinalis) on some biochemical parameters in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Nat Prod Plant Resour 2:628–632

  17. Mafuné F, Kohno J, Takeda Y, Kondow T, Sawabe H (2000) Formation and size control of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in aqueous solution. J Phys Chem B 104:9111–9117

  18. Makarov VV, Love AJ, Sinitsyn OV, Makarova SS, Yaminsky IV, Taliansky ME, Kalinina NO (2014) Green nanotechnologies: synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Acta Naturae 6:35–44

  19. Mittal AK, Chisti Y, Banerjee UC (2013) Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts. Biotechnol Adv 31:346–356

  20. Muller RH, Heinemann S (1992) Fat emulsions for parenteral nutrition. I. Evaluation of microscopic and laser light scattering methods for the determination of the physical stability. Clin Nutr 11:223–236

  21. Neelgund GM, Karthikeyan B, Shivashankar SA, Oki A (2015) Single-step, size-controlled synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles stabilized by octadecylamine. Appl Surf Sci 356:726–731

  22. Pallela PNVK, Ummey S, Ruddaraju LK, Pammi SVN, Yoon SG (2018) Ultra small, mono dispersed green synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia plant and investigation of antibacterial activity. Microb Pathog 124:63–69

  23. Panáček A, Smékalová M, Večeřová R, Bogdanová K, Röderová M, Kolář M, Kilianová M, Hradilová S, Froning JP, Havrdová M, Prucek R, Zbořil R, Kvítek L (2016) Silver nanoparticles strongly enhance and restore bactericidal activity of inactive antibiotics against multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae. Colloid Surf B 142:392–399

  24. Ramteke C, Chakrabarti T, Sarangi BK, Pandey RA (2013) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the aqueous extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum for enhanced antibacterial activity. J Chem 2013:1–7

  25. Sathishkumar M, Sneha K, Won SW, Cho CW, Kim S, Yun YS (2009) Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract and powder mediated green synthesis of nano-crystalline silver particles and its bactericidal activity. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 73:332–338

  26. Slepička P, Elashnikov R, Ulbrich P, Staszek M, Kolská Z, Švorčík V (2015) Stabilization of sputtered gold and silver nanoparticles in PEG colloid solutions. J Nanopart Res 17:11

  27. Uvarov V, Popov I (2013) Metrological characterization of X-ray diffraction methods at different acquisition geometries for determination of crystallite size in nano-scale materials. Mater Charact 85:111–123

  28. Vanaja M, Annadurai G (2013) Coleus aromaticus leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its bactericidal activity. Appl Nanosci 3:217–223

  29. Velgososvá O, Mražíková A, Marcinčá R (2016) Influence of pH on green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles. Mater Lett 180:336–339

  30. Wiegand I, Hilpert K, Hancock RE (2008) Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances. Nat Prot 3:163–175

Download references


This works was financed by FONDECYT (Project Nos. 1130854 and 1161713), REDES-CONICYT 180003, MEC-CONICYT 80170089 and 80170096, CONICYT/FONDAP/15130015 and Vicerrectoría de Investigación y Postgrado UFRO DI17-1002 and DI17-2015.

Author information

Correspondence to Olga Rubilar.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Manosalva, N., Tortella, G., Cristina Diez, M. et al. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: effect of synthesis reaction parameters on antimicrobial activity. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 35, 88 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-019-2664-3

Download citation


  • Silver nanoparticles
  • Antibacterial activity
  • Reaction parameters
  • Galega officinalis