Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 195, Issue 1–4, pp 345–352 | Cite as

COD Reduction in Semiconductor Wastewater by Natural and Commercialized Coagulants Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Fatehah Mohd Omar
  • Nik Norulaini Nik Abdul Rahman
  • Anees AhmadEmail author


A coagulation treatment study was conducted using both natural (sago and potato flour) and commercial (poly aluminum chloride and aluminum sulfate) coagulants in semiconductor wastewater. The effects for settling time and dosage of the coagulants as well as their interactions on the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity were investigated using a three level factorial design, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Sago concentration showed more influence on the COD and turbidity reduction than settling time, with concentrations lower than 1.5 g L−1 giving the better reduction. The interaction of settling time and concentration on the COD and turbidity were observed when using potato starch. Concentrations higher than 1.5 g L−1 potato starch reduced the COD and turbidity better. The polyaluminium chloride and ammonium sulphate revealed that lower concentrations (0.02–1.0 g L−1) and longer settling time (30–60 min) gave the greatest reduction in COD and turbidity.


Semiconductor-wastewater COD-reduction Response Surface Methodology Natural and Commercial Coagulant 



The authors are grateful to Advanced Micro Devices (M) Sdn. Bhd. (under the grant (304/PJJAUH/650309.A106) for the financial support of this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatehah Mohd Omar
    • 2
  • Nik Norulaini Nik Abdul Rahman
    • 1
  • Anees Ahmad
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Biological Science Division, School of Distance EducationUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia

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