Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 521–527 | Cite as

Anthelminthic activity of acetone extract and fractions of Vernonia amygdalina against Haemonchus contortus eggs and larvae

  • Isaiah Oluwafemi Ademola
  • J. N. Eloff
Original Research

Abstract

The current control of parasitic nematodes in small ruminants relies on the use of chemical anthelminthics, but the development of resistance and the problem of drug residues require research into alternatives. Acetone extract and solvent–solvent fractions of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Compositae) were evaluated in vitro for potential anti-parasitic effects against the eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Significant effects were obtained with the extract and fractions but differences were observed depending on the parasitic stage. The acetone extract and fractions inhibited egg hatching and inhibited larval development and killed larvae of H. contortus in a concentration-dependent manner. Best-fit 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values were 957.0, 76.0, 524.0, 309.0 and 224.0 μg/ml for the acetone extract, and the butanol, hexane, chloroform and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively, when tested against nematode eggs. Best-fit LC50 values for the larval viability test were 508.2, 485.5, 569.3, 348.9 and 196.6 μg/ml for the acetone extract, and the butanol, hexane, chloroform and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively. The butanol fraction was most active against nematode eggs while the 35% water in methanol fraction was the most active on nematode larvae, although differences in activity between fractions were not significant (p > 0.05). Overall, these in vitro results suggest that V. amygdalina, traditionally used by small farmers in Western Africa, does possess anti-parasitic properties.

Keywords

Anthelminthic activity Haemonchus contortus In vitro Vernonia amygdalina Eggs Larvae 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The University of Ibadan, Nigeria granted the main author staff development leave and the National Research Foundation South Africa provided a postdoctoral fellowship and funding. The Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute provided the use of facilities and Dr. AF Vatta is thanked for technical assistance and critical appraisal of the manuscript. Dr. F. van Schalkwyk, Biozetica Agri-source (Pty) Ltd., South Africa supplied the H. contortus larvae.

References

  1. Abdul, J., Muhammad, A.Z., Zafar, I., Muhammad, Y., Asim, S. 2007. Anthelmintic activity of Chenopodium album (L.) and Caesalpinia crista (L.) against trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 114, 86–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adaramoye, O.A., Olajumoke Akintayo, O., Achem, J., Fafunso, M. A. 2008. Lipid-lowering effects of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Vascular Health and Risk Management 4, 235–241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adedapo, A.A., Otesile, A.T., Soetan, K.O. 2007. Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of an aqueous crude extract of Vernonia amygdalina. Pharmaceutical Biology 45, 564–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alawa, C.B.I., Adamu, A.M., Gefu, J.O., Ajanusi, O.J., Abdu, P.A., Chiezey, N.P., Alawa, J.N., Bowman, D.D. 2003. In vitro screening of two Nigerian medicinal plants (Vermonia amygdalina and Annona senegalensis) for anthelmintic activity. Veterinary Parasitology 113, 73–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aregheore, E.M.K., Makkar, H.P.S., Becker, K. 1998. Feed value of some browse plants from the central zone of Delta State. Nigerian Tropical Science 38, 97–104.Google Scholar
  6. Arhoghro, E. M., Ekpo, K. E., Anosike, E. O., Ibeh, G. O. 2009. Effect of aqueous extract of bitter leaf (Vernonia Amygdalina Del) on Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in albino Wistar rats. European Journal of Scientific Research 26, pp.122–130Google Scholar
  7. Bonsi, M.L.K., Osuji, P.O., Tuah, A.K., Umunna, N.N. 1995. Vernonia amygdalina as a supplement to teff straw (Eragrostis tef.) fed to Ethiopian Menz sheep. Agroforestry Systems 31(3), 229–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coles, G.C., Bauer, C., Borgsteede, F.H., Geerts, S., Klei, T.R., Taylor, M.A., Waller, P.J. 1992. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Veterinary Parasitology 44, 35–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Eloff, J.N. 1998. Which extractant should be used for the screening and isolation of antimicrobial components from plants? Journal of Ethnopharmacology 60, 1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Eguale, T., Tilahun, G., Debella, A., Feleke, A., Makonnen, E. 2007. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Coriandrum sativum against Haemonchus contortus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 110, 428–433.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. GraphPad Software (2004) San Diego, CA, USA, http://www.graphpad.com
  12. Hoste, H., Jackson, F., Athanasiadou, S., Thamsborg, S.M., Hoskin, S.O. 2006. The effect of tannin-rich plants on parasitic nematodes in ruminants. Trends in Parasitology 22, 253–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hubert J., Kerboeuf, D. 1984. A new method for culture of larvae used in diagnosis of ruminant gastrointestinal strongylosis: comparison with faecal cultures. Canadian Journal of Complementary Medicine 48, 63–71.Google Scholar
  14. Hubert J., Kerboeuf, D. 1992. A microlarval development assay for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes. Veterinary Record 130, 442–446.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Huffman, M.A. 2001. Self-medicative behavior in the African great apes: an evolutionary perspective into the origins of human traditional medicine. Bioscience 51, 651–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ibiba, F. O., Ezinne O. O., Susan D. A. 2010. Glucose tolerance test in hyperglycaemic guinea pigs treated with aqueous Vernonia amygdalina. Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences 18, 21–26.Google Scholar
  17. Igweh, A.C., Onabanjo, A.O. 1989. Chemotherapeutic effects of Annona senegalensis in Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Annals of Tropical Medical Parasitology 83, 527–534.Google Scholar
  18. Iwalokun, B. A. 2008. Enhanced antimalarial effects of chloroquine by aqueous Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract in mice infected with chloroquine resistant and sensitive. Plasmodium berghei strains. African Health Sciences 8, 25–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jisaka, M., Ohigashi, H., Takagaki, T., Nozaki, H., Tada, T., Hiroto, M., Irie, R., Huffman, M.A., Nishida, T., Kaji, M., Koshimizu, K. 1992. Bitter steroid glucosides, Vernoniosides A1, A2, A3 and related B1 from a possible medicinal plant-Vernonia amygdalina used by wild chimpanzees. Tetrahedron 48, 625–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Koshimizu, K., Ohigashi, H., Huffman, M.A. 1994. Use of Vernonia amygdalina by wild chimpanzees: possible roles of its bitter and related constituents. Physiological Behaviour 56, 1209–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Papadopoulos, E. 2008. Anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes. Small Ruminant Research 76, 99–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sahpaz, S., Bories, C., Loiseau, P.M., Cortes, D., Hocquemiller, R., Laurens, A., Cave, A. 1994. Cytotoxic and antiparasitic activity from Annona senegalensis seeds. Planta Medica 60, 538–540.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Siamba, D.N., Okitoi, L.O., Watai, M.K., Wachira, A.M., Lukibisi, F.B., Mukisira, E.A. 2007. Efficacy of Tephrosia vogelli and Vernonia amygdalina as anthelminthics against Ascaridia galli in indigenous chicken. Livestock Research and Rural Development 19, 12–17.Google Scholar
  24. Suffness, M. and Douros, J. 1979. Drugs of plant origin, In: V.T. De Vita and H. Bush (eds.). Methods in cancer research. Vol XVI. New York Academic Press, New York. p. 73–125.Google Scholar
  25. Yedjou, C, Izevbigie, E, Tchounwou, P. 2008. Preclinical assessment of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extracts as DNA damaging anti-cancer agent in the management of breast cancer. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 5(5) 337–341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Phytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceUniversity of PretoriaOnderstepoortSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations