Journal of Insect Behavior

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 475–494 | Cite as

Olfactometer Responses of Plum Curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Host Plant Volatiles, Synthetic Grandisoic Acid, and Live Conspecifics

  • Virginia HockEmail author
  • Gérald Chouinard
  • Éric Lucas
  • Daniel Cormier
  • Tracy Leskey
  • Aijun Zhang


The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit, but will also attack other fruits. Males produce the aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid; emitting only the (+)-enantiomer which is attractive to both sexes of the univoltine and multivoltine strains, while the synthetic racemic mixture contains optical isomers with equal amounts of (+)- and (−)-enantiomers. Synergy between odours can increase trap captures and improve monitoring techniques, therefore tests were performed in a dual-choice olfactometer with odours attractive to plum curculios according to literature to determine 1) under what physiological conditions (mating status, age, starvation period) these odours are attractive or repulsive, 2) if the (+)-enantiomer or the odour of live males synergizes with host plant volatiles, and 3) if there is a difference in response between plum curculio strains. Females were exposed to: benzaldehyde; trans-2-hexenal; apples; extracts of: plums, apples, blueberries; grandisoic acid; and live males. Plum essence was found to be the most attractive host-plant odour for both immature and mature virgin females, and immature whole apples were attractive to starved females, while trans-2-hexenal, McIntosh apple essence, benzaldehyde along with the combination of benzaldehyde and plume essence was found to be repulsive. Starvation, age, and mated status all influence response to odours. No synergistic or additive affects were observed between any of the odour combinations tested, including the combination of both the natural and synthetic pheromone and plum essence or apples.


Host plants aggregation pheromone semiochemicals attractants repellents synergy 



We would like to thank Starker Wright of the USDA as well as the technicians, interns, and staff at IRDA for their assistance in the laboratory and in the field. We would also like to thank André Pichette for supplying the grandisoic acid. These studies were supported by a grant from Programme de soutien à l’innovation en agroalimentaire de Ministère de l’Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l’Alimentation du Québec (Québec, Qc.).


  1. Addesso KM, McAuslane HJ (2009) Pepper Weevil attraction to volatiles from host and nonhost plants. Environ Entomol 38:216–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akotsen-Mensah C. (2010) Ecology and management of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Alabama Peaches. PhD Dissertation. Auburn University, Alabama, USAGoogle Scholar
  3. Akotsen-Mensah C, Boozer R, Fadamiro HY (2010) Field evaluation of traps and lures for monitoring plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Alabama Peaches. J Econ Entomol 103(3):744–753CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alm SR, Hall FR (1986) Antennal sensory structures of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 79:324–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altuzar A, Malo EA, Gonzalez-Hernandez H, Rojas JC (2007) Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of Scyphophorus acupunctatus (Col., Curculionidae) to Agave tequilana volatiles. J. Appl. Entomol 131(2):121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amis AA, Snow JW (1985) Conotrachelus nenuphar. In: Singh P, Moore RF (eds) Handbook of insect rearing Vol. 1. Elsevier Science Publishing, New York, pp 227–236Google Scholar
  7. Bernays EA, Chapman RF (1994) Host-plant selection by phytophagous insects. Chapman and Hall Inc., New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brennan BM, Chang F, Mitchell WC (1977) Physiological Effects on Sex Pheromone Communication in the Southern Green Stink Bug, Nezara viridula. Environ Entomol 6(1):169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Butkewich SL, Prokopy RJ (1993) The effects of short-range host odour stimuli on host fruit finding and feeding behaviour of plum curculio adults (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Chem Ecol 19(4):825–835CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Butkewich SL, Prokopy RJ (1997) Attraction of adult plum curculios (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to host-tree odour and visual stimuli in the field. J Entomol Sci 32:1–6Google Scholar
  11. Butkewich SL, Prokopy RJ, Green TA (1987) Discrimination of occupied host fruit by plum curculio females (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Chem Ecol 13(8):1833–1841CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chouinard G, Charles V, Hill SB, Bernard P (1992) Cyclic behaviour of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), within caged dwarf apple trees in spring. J Insect Behav 5(3):385–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chouinard G, Hill SB, Vincent C (1993) Spring behaviour of the plum curculio, (Coleoptera Curculionidae), within caged dwarf apple trees in spring. J Insect Behav 5:385–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coffelt JA, Burkholder WE (1972) Reproductive biology of the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne. 1. Quantitative laboratory bioassay of the female sex pheromone from females of different ages. Annal Entomol Soc Am 65:447–450Google Scholar
  15. Cook SM, Khan ZR, Pickett JA (2007) The use of push-pull strategies in Integrated Pest Management. Annu Rev Entomol 52:375–400CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Coombs A (2001) Trap designs and attractants for monitoring plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst). M.Sc. Dissertation. Michigan State University, East Lansing, p 214Google Scholar
  17. Corbo MR, Lanciotti R, Gardini F, Sinigalia M, Guerzoni ME (2000) Effects of hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, and storage temperature on shelf life of fresh sliced apples. J Agric Food Chem 48(6):2401–2408CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dickens JC (1989) Green leaf volatiles enhance aggregation pheromone of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 52:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dickens JC, Jang EB, Light DM, Alford AR (1990) Enhancement of insect pheromone responses by green leaf volatiles. Naturwissenschaften 77(1):1–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dickerson WA, Ridgeway RL, Planer FR (1987) Southeastern boll weevil eradication program, improved pheromone trap, and program status. Proceedings of Beltwide Cotton Research and Production Conference, National Cotton Council, Memphis, TN, pp 335–337Google Scholar
  21. Eller FJ, Bartelt RJ (1996) Grandisoic acid a male produced aggregation pheromone from the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar. J Nat Prod 59:451–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eller FJ, Bartelt RJ, Shasha BS, Schuster DJ, Riley DG, Stansly PA, Mueller TF, Shuler KD, Johnson B, Davis JH, Sutherland CA (1994) Aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Identification and Field activity. J Chem Ecol 20:1537–1555CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gökçe A, Stelinski LL, Nortman DR, Bryan WW, Whalon ME (2014) Behavioral and Electroantennogram Responses of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Selected Noxious Plant Extracts and Insecticides. J Insect Sci 14:90. doi: 10.1093/jis/14.1.90 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Hallett RH, Oehlschlager AC, Borden JB (1999) Pheromone trapping protocols for the Asian palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleopter: Curculionidae). Inter J Pest Manag 45:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hardee DD, McKibben GH, Rummel DR, Huddleston PM, Coppedge JR (1974) Response of boll weevils to component ratios and doses of the pheromone. GrandLure Environ Entomol 3:135–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hock V, Chouinard G, Lucas É, Cormier D (2013) Mites affect plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) behavioural responses to attractive volatiles. Canad. Entomol. 145(1):82–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hock V, Chouinard G, Lucas E, Cormier D, Leskey T, Wright S, Zhang A, Pichette A (2014) Establishing abiotic and biotic factors necessary for reliable male pheromone production and attraction to pheromones by female plum curculios Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Can Entomol 146(5):528–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hock V, Chouinard G, Lucas É, Cormier D, Leskey TC, Wright SE, Zhang A, Pichette A (2015) Behavioral responses of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to different enantiomer concentrations and blends of the synthetic aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid. Environ Entomol:549–558. doi: 10.1093/jee/tov026
  29. Hoffmann EJ, Combs AB, Whalon ME (2004) Reproductive development of northern and southern strains of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Econ Entomol 97(1):27–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Innocenzi PJ, Hall DR, Cross JV (2001) Components of male aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi Herbst. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Chem Ecol 27(6):1203–1218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Jenkins D, Corttrell T, Horton D, Hodges A, Hodges G (2006) Hosts of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in central Georgia. Environ Entomol 35:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson AW, Hays SB (1969) Laboratory Mating Behaviour of the Plum Curculio. J Econ Entomol 62(2):438–440CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Jutsum AR, Gordon RFS (1989) Pheromones: importance to insects and role in pest management. In: Jutsum AR, Gordon RFS (eds) Insect pheromones in plant protection. Gordon. John Wilen and Sons Ltd., New York, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  34. Klassen W, Ridgway RL, Inscoe M (1982) Chemical attractants in integrated pest management programs. In: Kydonieus AF, Berosa M (eds) Insect suppression with controlled release pheromone systems. Vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 13–130Google Scholar
  35. Lafleur G, Hill SB (1987) Spring migration, within-orchard dispersal, and apple-tree preference of the plum curculio in Southern Quebec. J Econ Entomol 80:1173–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lafleur G, Chouinard G, Vincent C, Cormier D (2007) Impact of trap architecture, adjacent habitats, abiotic factors, and host plant phenology on captures of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults. J Econ Entomol 100(3):37–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Landolt PJ, Phillips TW (1997) Host plant influences on sex pheromone behaviour of phytophagous insects. Annu Rev Entomol 42:371–391CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Le Blanc, J.P.R. (1992) Trapping and monitoring techniques for plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a southwestern Quebec apple orchard. PhD Dissertation. McGill University, Quebec, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  39. Leskey TC (2006) Visual cues and capture mechanisms associated with traps for plum curculios (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Entomol Sci 41:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Leskey TC, Prokopy RJ (2000) Sources of apple odour attractive to adult plum curculios. J Chem Ecol 26(3):639–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leskey TC, Prokopy RJ (2001) Adult plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attraction to fruit and conspecific odours. Ann Entomol Soc Am 94:275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Leskey TC, Wright SE (2004a) Monitoring plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), population in apple and peach orchards in the Mid-Atlantic. J Econ Entomol 97(1):79–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Leskey TC, Wright SE (2004b) Influence of host tree proximity on adult plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) responses to monitoring traps. Environ Entomol 33(2):389–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Leskey TC, Wright SE (2007) Host preference of the plum curculio. Entomol Exp Appl 123:217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leskey TC, Bramlage C, Phelan L, Prokopy RJ (1996) Attraction of plum curculio adults to host-plant and pheromonal extracts. Fruit Notes. 61(1):7–9Google Scholar
  46. Leskey TC, Prokopy RJ, Wright SE, Phelan PL, Haynes LW (2001) Evaluation of individual components of plum odour as potential attractants for adult plum curculios. J Chem Ecol 27(1):1–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Leskey TC, Zhang A, Herzog M (2005) Nonfruiting host tree volatile blends: novel attractants for the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environ Entomol 34(4):785–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Leskey TC, Pinero JC, Wood S, Prokopy RJ (2008) Odour baited trap trees: a potential management tool for the plum curculio. J Econ Entomol 101:1302–1309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Leskey TC, Wright SE, Anger W, Chouinard G, Cormier D, Pichette A, Zhang A (2009a) Electroantennogram technique for Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environ Entomol 38(3):870–878CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Leskey TC, Chouinard G, Vincent C (2009b) Monitoring and management of the apple maggot fly and the plum curculio: honoring the legacy of R. J. Prokopy. In: Aluja M, Leskey TC, Vincent C (eds) Biorational Tree Fruit Pest Management. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 110–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leskey TC, Hancock TJ, Wright SE (2010) Host Tree-Related Differences in trap captures and electroantennogram activity for the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Canad Entomol 142:284–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leskey TC, Wright SE, Hock V, Chouinard G, Cormier D, Leahy K, Cooley D, Tuttle A, Eaton A, Zhang A (2014) Evaluating electrophysiological and behavioral responses to volatiles for improvement of odor-baited trap-tree management of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environ Entomol 43(3):753–761CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mampe CD, Neunzig HH (1967) The biology, parasitism and population sampling of the plum curculio on blueberry in North Carolina. J Econ Entomol 60:807–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McGiffen ME Jr, Meyer JR (1986) Effect of environmental factors on overwintering phenomena and spring migration of the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environ Entomol 15(4):884–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Metcalf RL, Metcalf ER (1992) Fruit flies of the family tephritidae. In: Metcalf RL, Metcalf ER (eds) Plant kairomones in insect ecology and control Routledge. Chapman & Hall, New York, p 168Google Scholar
  56. Ocellachain DP, Pyan NF (1977) Production and perception of pheromones by the beetle Tribolium confusum. J Ins Phys 23:1303–1309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Padula AL, Smith EH (1971) Reproductive incompatibility between univoltine males and multivoltine females of the plum curculio. Ann Soc Entomol Am 64:665–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Phillips JK, Burkholder WE (1981) Evidence for a male-produced aggregation pheromone in the rice weevil. J Econ Entomol 74:539–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pinero J, Prokopy RJ (2003) Field evaluation of plant odour and pheromonal combinations for attracting plum curculios. J Chem Ecol 29:2735–2748CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Piňero JC, Wright S, Prokopy RJ (2001) Response of plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odor-baited traps near woods. J Econ Entomol 94(6):1386–1397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Piñero JC, Agnello AM, Tuttle A, Leskey TC, Faubert H, Koehler G, Los L, Morin G, Leahy K, Cooley DR, Prokopy RJ (2011) Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the Northeast. J Econ Entomol 104:1613–1621CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Polavarapu S, Kyryczenko-Roth V, Barry JD (2004) Phenology and infestation patterns of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on four highbush blueberry cultivars. J Econ Entomol 87:1899–1905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Poorjavad N, Goldansaz SH, Avand-Faghih A (2009) Response of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus to its aggregation pheromone under laboratory conditions. Bull Insectol 62(2):257–260Google Scholar
  64. Prokopy RJ, Leskey TC (1997) Do natural sources of odour enhance plum curculio attraction to traps? Fruit Notes. 62(1):9–12Google Scholar
  65. Prokopy RJ, Cooley SJ, Phelan PI (1995) Bioessay approaches to assessing behavioural responses of plum curculio adults (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to host fruit odour. J Chem Ecol 21(8):1073–1084CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Prokopy RJ, Chandler BW, Wright LTC, S.E. (2000) Comparison of six different types of unbaited traps for monitoring plum curculio in orchard. J Entomol Sci 35:411–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Prokopy RJ, Chandler BW, Pinero JC (2002) Commercial orchard evaluation of traps for monitoring plum curculio: 2001 results. Fruit Notes 67:17–22Google Scholar
  68. Prokopy RJ, Chandler BW, Dynok SA, Piňero J (2003) Odor-baited trees: a new approach to monitoring plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Econ Entomol 96:826–834CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Qi Y, Burkholder WE (1982) Sex pheromone biology and behaviour of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J Chem Ecol 8(2):527–534CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Quaintance A.L., Jenne E.L. (1912) The plum curculio. USDA, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology Bulletin, 103Google Scholar
  71. Racette G, Chouinard G, Hill SB, Vincent C (1991) Activity of adult plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on apple trees in spring. J Econ Entomol 84:1827–1832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Racette G, Chouinard G, Vincent C, Hill SB (1992) Ecology and management of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in apple orchards. Phyto 73:85–100Google Scholar
  73. Ridway RL, Inscoe MN (1990) Role of the boll weevil pheromone in pest management. In: Ridgway R, Silverstein R, Inscoe M (eds) Behavior-modifying chemicals for insect management. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp 437–471Google Scholar
  74. Rochat D, Malosse C, Lettere M, Ducrot PH, Zagatti P, Renou M, Descoina C (1991) Male-produced aggregation pheromone of the American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): collection, identification, electrophysiological activity, and laboratory bioassay. J Chem Ecolo 17:2127–2141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shu S, Park YI, Ramaswamy SB, Srinivasan A (1998) Temporal profiles of juvenile hormone titers and egg production in virgin and mated females of Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). J Ins Physio 44:1111–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Smart LE, Blight MM, Pickett JA, Pye BJ (1994) Development of field strategies incorporating semiochemicals for the control of the pea and bean weevil, Sitona lineatus L. Crop Protec 13(2):127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smith EH, Flessel JK (1968) Hibernation of the plum curculio and its spring migration to host trees. J Econ Entomol 61(1):193–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry: The principles and practice of statistics in biological research, 3rd edn. W.H. Freeman, New York, p 776Google Scholar
  79. Spurgeon DW (2003) Age dependence of pheromone production by the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Envrion Entomol 32(1):31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Steiner HM, Worthley HN (1941) The plum curculio problem on peach in Pennsylvania. J Econ Entomol 34(2):249–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thompson JR (1932) Sex differentiation of adults of Conotrachelus nenuphar. J Econ Entomol 25:807–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tinzaara W, Gold CS, Dicke M, Huis AV, Ragama PE (2007) Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone cosmoluret ®.- Internat. J. Pest Manage 53(2):127–137Google Scholar
  83. Tumlinson JH, Hardee DD, Gueldner RC, Thompson AC, Hedin PA, Minyard JP (1969) Sex pheromones produced by male boll weevils: isolation, identification, and synthesis. Sci 166:1010–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vincent C, Roy M (1992) Entomological limits to biological control programs in Québec apple orchards. Acta Phytopathol Entomol Hung 27:649–657Google Scholar
  85. Wakefield M.E. (1998) The effect of insect age on the response of three species of Sitophilus to 48, 5R–sitophilure and food volatiles. Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection Vol. 2, Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, Beijing, China, pp 1513–1518Google Scholar
  86. Walgenbach CA, Philhps JK, Faustmi D, Burkholder WE (1983) Male-produced aggregation pheromone of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeanuus, and interspecific attraction between three Sitophilus species. J Chem Ecol 9:831–841Google Scholar
  87. Whalon M, Nortman D, Wise J, Gut L, Epstein D (2006) Plum curculio management and spray timing. Michigan State Univ Fruit CAT Newsletter 21:1–3Google Scholar
  88. Whitcomb WD (1933) Relation of temperature to the development of the plum curculio in apples. J Econ Entomol 26:415–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhang X, Pfeiffer DG (2008) evaluation of reproductive compatibility of interstrain matings among plum curculio populations in the Eastern United States. Environ. Entomol 37(5):1208–1213Google Scholar
  90. Zhang X, Luckhart S, Tu Z, Pfeiffer DG (2010) Analysis of Wolbachia strains associated with Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Eastern United States. Environ Entomol 39(2):396–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Virginia Hock
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Gérald Chouinard
    • 1
  • Éric Lucas
    • 2
  • Daniel Cormier
    • 1
  • Tracy Leskey
    • 3
  • Aijun Zhang
    • 4
  1. 1.Institut de recherche et de développement en agroenvironnement (IRDA)Saint-Bruno-de-MontarvilleCanada
  2. 2.Département des sciences biologiques, Laboratoire de lutte biologiqueUniversité du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)MontréalCanada
  3. 3.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research ServiceAppalachian Fruit Research Station (ARS-AFRS)KearneysvilleUSA
  4. 4.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research ServiceBeltsville Agricultural Research CenterBeltsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations