Giant Cicada Emergence, Protandry and Chorus Centers Formation as Revealed by Studies Using a Sound Trap
The giant cicada, Quesada gigas (Olivier) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), is an important coffee pest and information about the behavior and reproduction of this species, e.g. emergence, senescence and ovarian maturation status, can be valuable to understand giant cicada ecology and to improve the use of a sound trap as a control method. A great number of Q. gigas adult males and females was captured using a sound trap and a protandrous type of emergence possibly associated with chorus centers formation was observed. All giant cicadas collected until 14–15 days after the beginning of male emergence (DAME) had immature ovaries at two different years of evaluation. On the other hand, the majority of cicadas collected from 20 until 48 DAME had mature ovaries with visible chorionated oocytes. Despite the use of the sound trap to collect insects for ecological studies, we believe that next generations of Q. gigas can be reduced by using this sound trap to hinder the formation of giant cicada chorus centers, to reduce male availability to copulate with females and to reduce the number of females to oviposit in coffee plants.
KeywordsCoffea arabica Quesada gigas phonotaxis behavioral control
The authors thank Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for the scholarship for SCA, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) for research Grant (14/06137-0) and Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG) for allowing the use of experimental areas. We also thank Professor Tomomassa Matuo for the donation of the improved version of the sound trap used in this study to the Departamento de Fitossanidade and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable contribution.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Alexander RD, Moore TE (1958) Studies on the acoustical behavior of seventeen-year cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada). Ohio J Sci 58:107–127Google Scholar
- Decaro Junior ST, Martinelli NM, Maccagnan DHB, Ribeiro ESDBP (2012) Oviposition of Quesada gigas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) in coffee plants. Rev Colomb Entomol 38:1–5Google Scholar
- Maccagnan DHB (2008) Cigarra (Hemiptera: Cicadidae): emergência, comportamento acústico e desenvolvimento de armadilha sonora. PhD Thesis, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras da Universidade de São PauloGoogle Scholar
- Martinelli NM (2004) Cigarras associadas ao cafeeiro. In: Salvadori JR, Ávila CJ, Silva MTB (eds) Pragas de solo no Brasil. Espiral Comércio de Livros, Passo Fundo, pp 517–541Google Scholar
- Metcalf ZP (1963) General catalogue of the Homoptera, fascicle VIII. Cicadoidea. Part 1. Cicadidae. Section 1. Tibiceninae. North Caroline State College Contribution 1502:1–585Google Scholar
- Reis PR, Souza JC, Venzon M (2002) Manejo ecológico das principais pragas do cafeeiro. Informe Agropecuário 23:83–99Google Scholar
- Souza JC, Reis PR, Silva RA (2007) Cigarras-do-cafeeiro em Minas Gerais: histórico, reconhecimento, biologia, prejuízos e controle. Boletim técnico 80, 2nd ed. EPAMIG, Belo Horizonte, p 48Google Scholar
- Villet MH (1992) Responses of free-living cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae) to broadcasts of cicada songs. J Entomol Soc South Afr 55:93–97Google Scholar