Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 479–493 | Cite as

Integrity and Rights of Plants: Ethical Notions in Organic Plant Breeding and Propagation

  • Edith T. Lammerts Van Bueren
  • Paul C. StruikEmail author


In addition to obviating the use of synthetic agrochemicals and emphasizing farming in accordance with agro-ecological guidelines, organic farming acknowledges the integrity of plants as an essential element of its natural approaches to crop production. For cultivated plants, integrity refers to their inherent nature, wholeness, completeness, species-specific characteristics, and their being in balance with their (organically farmed) environment, while accomplishing their “natural aim.” We argue that this integrity of plants has ethical value, distinguishing integrity of life, plant-typic integrity, genotypic integrity, and phenotypic integrity. We have developed qualitative criteria to ethically evaluate existing practices and have applied these criteria to assess whether current plant breeding and propagation techniques violate the integrity of crop plants. This process has resulted in a design of a holistic, scientific approach of organic plant breeding and seed production. Our evaluation has met considerable criticism from mainstream (crop) scientists. We respond to the following questions: (1). Can ethics be incorporated into objective crop sciences? (2). What is the nature of the intrinsic value of plants in organic farming? We argue that criteria to take integrity into account can only be assessed from a holistic perspective and we show that a holistic approach is needed to design such ethical notions in a consistent way. The ethical notions have been further elaborated by formulating human responsibility and respect towards crop plants. Responsibility and respect can only be shown by providing crop plants the right to be nurtured and to express natural behavior at all levels of integrity.

Key words:

integrity intrinsic value natural aim naturalness organic breeding organic plant propagation plant rights respect 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edith T. Lammerts Van Bueren
    • 1
  • Paul C. Struik
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Louis Bolk InstituteDriebergenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Plant Sciences Group, Crop and Weed EcologyWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

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