Chromatographic fingerprinting of Lupinus luteus L. (Leguminosae) main secondary metabolites: a case of domestication affecting crop variability
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Secondary metabolites (SMs), such as alkaloids and raffinose oligosaccharides (RFOs), play important roles in plant physiology. Although alkaloid and RFO phenotypic variation has been reported for yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.), most evaluations have used a reduced number of accessions; thus, limiting the understanding of accumulation patterns and variation ranges. The main goal of this research was to assess alkaloid and RFO content in a diverse L. luteus sample to understand possible SM accumulation patterns across this legume species. Eighteen yellow lupin accessions were analyzed using high performance thin layer chromatography to provide insights on seed and leaf RFO and alkaloid phenotypic variation. Co-dominant markers (170) were used to examine genetic relationships among L. luteus accessions and possible accumulation patterns across closely related genotypes. Significant differences were observed for seed and leaf RFOs. Total seed RFO accumulation ranged from 79.738 to 131.079 mg g−1. Raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose were observed in all genotypes’ seeds, but at different RFO concentrations. Raffinose was the only RFO detected in leaves (2.793–0.4224 mg g−1). Total alkaloid accumulation ranged from 0.22 to 15.12 and 0.00 to 8.007 mg g−1 for seeds and leaves, respectively. Lupinine, sparteine, and gramine were observed in seeds and leaves, and showed a wide range of variation. Neighbor-Joining (NJ) analysis showed an apparent pattern of seed alkaloid accumulation, most likely due to domestication events. However, high RFO accumulating accessions were scattered across the NJ tree. Alkaloid and RFO significant phenotypic variation will not only help to understand the roles of these SMs in L. luteus, but also to uncover the genetic basis behind their accumulation.
KeywordsAlkaloids HPTLC Lupinus luteus Raffinose oligosaccharides Secondary metabolites Lupin seed quality
This research was founded by the National Commission for Scientific & Technological Research (FONDECYT Project 3140064). The authors thank INIA Carillanca for their contribution in the use of experimental fields and infrastructure.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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