Conservation Genetics

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 995–1009 | Cite as

Temporal genetic dynamics of reintroduced and translocated populations of the endangered golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia)

  • Andreia Magro Moraes
  • Carlos R. Ruiz-Miranda
  • Milton Cezar Ribeiro
  • Adriana D. Grativol
  • Carolina da S. Carvalho
  • James M. Dietz
  • Maria Cecília M. Kierulff
  • Lucas A. Freitas
  • Pedro M. GalettiJr
Research Article


Reintroductions—captive-born animals introduced into the species’ original distribution area—and translocations—free-living animals transferred to another location within the historical distribution area—are important conservation strategies for endangered species. Genetic analyses of 239 individuals from unmanaged, translocated and reintroduced populations of Leontopithecus rosalia were performed using 14 microsatellites. These samples were collected during two periods: (a) 1996–1997 (historic), when individuals were translocated and reintroduced into forest fragments in the lowland Atlantic Forest, and (b) 2007–09 (recent). We hypothesized that effective population size and genetic diversity would increase over time and that these management strategies would affect the resulting population genetic structure. We found trends indicating that the effective population size at the translocation site increased while that at the reintroduction sites diminished over time. The inbreeding coefficient of the translocated population diminished over time (from 0.38 to 0.03) and was much lower than that of the native (0.29) and reintroduced (0.13) recent populations. We observed a greater genetic admixture among the reintroduced sites on the historic sampling, as well as a strong genetic structure at the translocation site. In the recent sampling, the population structuring became more site-related suggesting low or inconsistent gene flow between sampling sites. This research highlights how conservation management decisions have an important influence on the genetic outcome of translocations and reintroductions. Future conservation planning should consider population genetic monitoring before and after management measures and maintain population connectivity thereafter to avoid the negative effects of a population size reduction.


Genetic management Temporal genetic sampling Conservation genetics Microsatellite Endangered species 



We are grateful for support by the LTBF and by K. De Vleeschouwer and P. Galbusera of the Centre for Research and Conservation funded by the Flemish Government. CNPq supported PMG Jr (308385/2014-4), MCR (312045/2013-1) and CRRM (472647/2009-1); and FAPESP supports MCR (2013/50421-2). Scholarship received by AMM (CAPES), CSC (FAPESP 2014/01029-5) and MCMK (PNPD/CAPES). We thank M. King, a native English speaker, for proofreading the manuscript; A. Nicodemo for assistance in the laboratory; and AMLD, especially A. Martins and P. Procópio-de-Oliveira, for providing the field data and hair samples. University of Maryland Animal Care and Use Committee approved protocols for this research. The authors thank the three anonymous reviewers for suggestions and comments, which improved the manuscript.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreia Magro Moraes
    • 1
  • Carlos R. Ruiz-Miranda
    • 1
  • Milton Cezar Ribeiro
    • 2
  • Adriana D. Grativol
    • 1
  • Carolina da S. Carvalho
    • 2
  • James M. Dietz
    • 3
  • Maria Cecília M. Kierulff
    • 4
  • Lucas A. Freitas
    • 5
  • Pedro M. GalettiJr
    • 6
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia e Recursos NaturaisUniversidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de EcologiaUniversidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)São PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Save The Golden Lion TamarinSilver SpringUSA
  4. 4.Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade Tropical, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo (CEUNES)Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES)São MateusBrazil
  5. 5.Departamento de GenéticaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  6. 6.Departamento de Genética e EvoluçãoUniversidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar)São CarlosBrazil

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